While many General Elections have been hailed as ‘historic’, few can come close to the election held on 5th July 1945.
The UK had been ruled by a coalition government since 1940 but, following the German surrender, the Labour Party withdrew from the coalition, forcing an election while the war was still underway in the far east. The logistics of members of the forces voting meant that the results couldn’t be declared until 26th July and, when they came, they were a shock.
As the Prime Minister who had led Britain through the war, Winston Churchill was widely expected to win, but instead the result was a landslide victory for the Labour Party which took 47.7% of the vote and 393 seats. It was tremendous mandate and enabled the new government, headed by Clement Attlee, to embark on huge reforms, including the establishment of the National Health Service, a comprehensive welfare state, legal aid, education reforms and nationalisation of key industries including coal mining, steel making, railways and road transport, and shipping. The decolonisation process slowly started with the partition of British India and Wales was given a very moderate level of devolution through the establishment of the Council of Wales and Monmouthshire.
Due in part to the strength of the labour movement in Wales, many Welsh men and women were at the heart of this transformation, and the Welsh Political Archive at the National Library of Wales holds many archives which shed light on the drama and debates of the period.
Aneurin Bevan was Minister for Health and Housing; while there was cross party agreement on the provision of universal healthcare, Bevan created the model of a ‘nationally’ managed and centrally funded service. While many of Bevan’s papers are held by the Open University and the People’s History Museum, the papers of Bevan’s agent, Cllr Ron Evans, contain a great deal of interesting material.
Jim Griffiths was Minister for National Insurance, another key plank of the government’s reform programme. As well as reforming the systems for unemployment and pensions, Griffiths introduced family allowance and reformed the system for industrial injuries compensation.
David Rees-Williams, who was later elevated to the peerage as Lord Ogmore, was still serving in the military when he defeated the sitting Conservative MP in Croydon South. He was appointed as Minister in Colonial Office and travelled widely, advising on reforms leading to increased self-government and independence for countries in south Asia.
The Library also holds the papers of a number of MPs who were part of the 1945-50 Labour group in Parliament. Elwyn Jones was elected as MP for Plaistow in 1945 and acted as junior British Counsel during the Nuremberg Trials, and was Lead Prosecutor) at Marshal Erich von Manstein in 1948. He later served as Attorney General for England and Wales and Lord Chancellor of England and Wales.
George Thomas was also elected during the 1945 landslide for Cardiff West. He later served as Secretary of State for Wales and Speaker of the House of Commons before being elevated to the peerage as Lord Tonypandy.
Goronwy Roberts was another who won his seat, Caernarvonshire, in 1945. He was also a strong supporter of the Parliament for Wales Campaign and later served as Minister of State in the Welsh Office and a number of other ministerial roles.
D Emlyn Thomas wasn’t elected in the 1945 landslide but in a by election in the Aberdare Constituency in 1946. In his maiden speech he spoke about compensation for injured miners; a topic which would be addressed by the government’s social security programme.
In response to demands for the establishment of a Secretary of State for Wales, the Attlee government instead established an advisory committee for Wales. Its first chairman was trade union official Huw T Edwards, who became known as the ‘Unofficial Prime Minister of Wales’ and who donated a substantial collection of papers to the Library. The official records of the council are also held by the Library, and include papers related to the decision to designate Cardiff as the Capital City of Wales in 1955.
Gordon MacDonald had been the Labour MP for Ince but resigned in 1942 to become Controller of Fuel and Power for Lancashire, Cheshire and North Wales. He did however have a key role in government from 1946, but not in the UK. He was appointed by Attlee as Governor of Newfoundland, which was then a Dominion under a form of direct rule and oversaw the process of confederation with Canada before returning to the UK, being elevated to the peerage as Lord MacDonald of Gwaenysgor and serving as Paymaster General. The papers are in the process of being catalogued.
The Library’s collection of Illingworth Cartoons include many related to the 1945 General Election and the 1945-50 Labour Government, and some of the Library’s holdings of election addresses and posters have recently been digitised. The addresses of Labour, Conservative, Liberal, Plaid Cymru and Independent candidates can be browsed on our website.
One night, as I tried to sleep, I was captivated by a bird call outside my window. A nightjar, perhaps? I couldn’t tell, but I began thinking about birds in mythology and music alike.
Herbert Howells’s ‘King David’ is a musical setting of Walter De La Mare’s striking poem about the sadness of King David. He called for the music of a hundred harps but their sweet sound could not release him from his melancholy. He wandered into his garden and was struck by the sad song of the nightingale and as he listened to it in the cool moonlight, his own sorrow disappeared. Birds have a similar ability in Arwel Hughes‘s work, ‘Adar Rhiannon’.
The cuckoo’s two note call may be heard in some of our folk songs, like the lovely, ‘Daw hyfryd fis …’ as well as in the works of eminent composers like Handel and Beethoven. To old Japanese poets the cuckoo’s call could be either the voice of spring or a voice from the land of the dead and this dichotomy is reflected in the music of Oliver Knussen, ‘O hototogisu’.
I often thought that the ecstatic cry of swifts was like the sound of children playing so it was interesting to read in Peter Tate’s book, ‘Flights of fancy’, that the Inuit and Russians had a similar feeling about the sound of swallows and even believed they were the spirits of dead children.
In the real world, few would trust a bird to deliver a message – but lovers do in folk songs (e.g. ‘Aderyn du a’i blufyn sidan’) and John Williams’s film music, ‘Hedwig’s theme’, portrays Harry Potter’s owl who delivered letters in her beak.
The swan sings before death, according to the old tradition. Peter Tate quotes one of Orlando Gibbons’s madrigals:
“The silver swan, who living had no note,
When death approach’d, unlock’d her silent throat”
Tate states that the tradition was kept alive by the eminent zoologist, Daniel Giraud Elliot, who described seeing a swan being shot in 1898. The swan’s wings became fixed in flight and to everyone’s astonishment, it started to make plaintive and musical sounds – at times as though running quietly through the notes of an octave. Fanny Mendelssohn composed a superb piece about a swan’s last song: ‘Schwanenlied’.
I would love to hear a concert of Welsh music inspired by birds e.g. folk tunes and music by composers like Dilys Elwyn-Edwards and Rhian Samuel.
Raising money for music projects (or any other project) is always difficult. Perhaps we could benefit from studying the business techniques of the opera singer Adelina Patti. When a certain individual entered her room her pet parrot would screech “Cash! Cash!”
The National Library of Wales building has been closed for several weeks, but did you know that you can pay a virtual visit to one of Wales’ leading institutions on your smartphone or tablet?
In 2017 the National Library was invited to work with Google on producing a tour for the Google Expeditions app. This is a resource that teaches children about important places throughout the world by providing virtual tours. This project was an important milestone for the company, since this was the first time that Google Expeditions had produced an expedition in Welsh.
Representatives of Google Arts and Culture held discussions with the Library’s Digital Access unit and Education Service in order to confirm the content of a virtual visit to The National Library of Wales. It was agreed that the expedition should include materials representing the Library’s extensive collections, and which offer a taste of Wales’ history and heritage, as well as showing various spaces within the building.
For users to appreciate the full effect of the virtual visit they need to wear a VR headset, but the experience can also be enjoyed on a smartphone or tablet without a headset. It is possible to look around spaces in the Library – each view is 360º – and by clicking on a POI (Points of Interest), a user can learn more about the organisation, the building or items from the collection.
Each expedition contains facts about the place of interest, and challenges the viewer with relevant questions. To make sure that the resource is suitable for pupils of different ages, the questions ranged between easier ones for younger children and more difficult ones for older children. A teacher has access to the answers, without the pupils being able to see them.
Equipment was brought over from the United States to produce images of the Library’s spaces, and even though the company only filmed for an afternoon, the work of stitching the digital scenes together in California, as well as preparing the text and questions in the Library, took several days.
The resource enables children on the other side of the world to see the The National Library of Wales, but the Education Service has also used the tool to introduce pupils in Wales to the Library and its collections, as seen here in a workshop held at Ysgol Gymunedol Trimsaran.
To visit The National Library of Wales on Google Expeditions, click on the link below: https://www.library.wales/services/education/projects/google-expeditions
You’ll need to download the Google Expeditions app free of charge from Google Play or App Store. Once you’ve downloaded the app onto your device you can search for specific tours by using the app’s search facility. Look for The National Library of Wales for the English version or Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru for the Welsh language tour, and follow the directions.
One of the Education Service’s main responsibilities is to provide access for teachers and learners to the National Library’s collections, as digital copies online or workshops in the building. Therefore, during a period when we can’t welcome pupils to the Library in person, the Education Service has been creating digital resources – and highlighting provisions that already exist – so that teachers and pupils can continue to use the national collections from afar.
Many resources have already been published on Hwb, the digital platform introduced by the Welsh Government for learning and teaching in Wales. Amongst the materials published by the National Library – as well as resources produced in partnership with other institutions – are E-books, lesson plans, presentations and tasks. The Education Service staff research and interpret the Library’s collections, producing resources that can help pupils learn and understand a variety of subjects and skills. Here are links to a small selection:
As well as presenting resources on Hwb, by providing links on the Library’s website the Education Service also facilitates easier access to parts of the collections that can support teaching in the classroom or online. Examples of these are shown below:
HISTORY LESSONS FROM HOME 📚Do you want to discover more about the history of Wales, or your local and national heritage?Here is a quick guide on how to find our Education packs – an amazing resource for teachers and learners of all ages! 🤩👉https://www.library.wales/services/education/learning-resourcesEducation Wales
The National Library of Wales is one of 10 hubs across Britain that is collaborating with the British Library on the Unlocking Our Sound Heritage project. The project, funded by the National Lottery Heritage Fund, aims to protect the nation’s rare and unique sound recordings.
We are in the process of digitising, cataloguing and assessing the rights of 5,000 sound recordings from across Wales in order to protect them for future generations.
Over the next few weeks, composers will be composing new works based on some of Wales’s oral history collections. 25 artists have been commissioned to undertake this task. They will listen to a number of interviews recorded either in Wales or by people from Wales, and will use them to inspire creating a new piece of work.
During the summer the Library will unlock these works, showing how an audio archive can be used to create creative works.
The composers selected are listed below:
Ailsa Hughes a Sianed Jones: ‘Tinc y Tannau’ duo who work with historical Welsh music and poetry
Alan Chamberlain: composer who predominantly works with archival content
Angharad Davies: violinist, composer and performer and a member of several duets
Ben McManus: musician and composer with an interest in folk music and folklore
Bonello, Ruth and Hay: musical trio, featuring prominent Welsh songwriters who started performing together in 2019
Branwen Williams: musician, composer and member of several groups from Wales
David Roche: composer from Tredegar who has received over 30 academic and professional awards
Derri Joseph Lewis: musician and composer with experience of writing acoustic and electronic music
Gareth Bonello: musician and composer who uses Welsh folk songs and poetry in his work
Georgia Ruth Williams: musician and composer who is inspired by the history of Wales and folk tradition
Geraint Rhys: independent musician and award winning film-maker from Swansea
Gwen Mairi: professional harpist who sings Welsh folk songs
Gwenan Gibbard: singer and harpist specialising in folk music
Gwilym Bowen Rhys: Welsh folk singer who has developed a deep connection with the traditional songs of Wales
Gwydion Rhys: 6th form pupil at Ysgol Dyffryn Ogwen, Bethesda who composes and plays the piano
Luciano Williamson: composer about to graduate from the Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama
Neil Rosser: hails from Morriston with over 30 years’ experience as a composer and performer
Owen Shiers: musician and composer who performs Welsh folk music
Pierce Joyce: composition student at the Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama, hailing from Ireland
Sally Crosby: singer – song writer with a degree in Music and Creative writing
Sam Humphreys: musician who plays the guitar and is a member of the band Calan
Seth Alexander: composer who likes to combine computer instrumentation with sound recordings
Stacey Blythe: composer, musician and performer who also performs as part of various duos
Steff Rees: musician and composer who is a member of the band Bwca, and part of the ukulele Iwcadwli orchestra
Toby Hay: composer and performer with his work being inspired by history, landscape and stories
Nine hundred years ago, in May 1120, the bones of the sixth-century saint Dyfrig were taken from Bardsey and reburied at Llandaff, where bishop Urban was rebuilding and enlarging the church to match what he considered to be its proper status. As bishop of Llandaff, Urban claimed jurisdiction over every church dedicated to the founding bishops and patron saints of Llandaff, namely Dyfrig, Teilo and Euddogwy, and this brought him into conflict with the bishops of St Davids and Hereford, whom he saw as his inferiors. The translation of Dyfrig’s relics to Llandaff was intended to strengthen Urban’s case, but the centrepiece of his campaign was Liber Landavensis, the Book of Llandaff, which is now one of the Library’s treasures. Through it, we can see how Urban’s ambitious claims played an important part in redefining not only the Welsh church but its relations with the English church and the papacy.
The contents of the manuscript were compiled with the intention of showing that Llandaff possessed metropolitan status, direct ecclesiastical authority from the Tywi to the Wye (an area roughly equivalent to the old kingdom of Morgannwg) and an unbroken tradition from Dyfrig, appropriating the traditions of other churches in the process. It dates from between around 1120 and Urban’s death in 1133 (although other material was added later), and consists of the Gospel of St Matthew, the ‘Lives’ of Dyfrig, Teilo, Euddogwy and other saints, the ‘Privilege of Teilo’ in Latin and Welsh, an account of the foundation of Llandaff, a list of its bishops, and incomplete or corrupted copies of charters by which secular rulers granted land to Llandaff from the sixth century to the eleventh century. There is also some contemporary material, including a copy of the agreement made in 1126 between Urban and Robert of Gloucester, lord of Glamorgan, putting a stop to predations on the temporal possessions of the diocese. As is usually the case with propaganda, Liber Landavensis contains a mixture of fact, insinuation and fabrication that is often difficult to pick apart.
St Davids responded by creating its own propaganda, claiming metropolitan status over the whole of Wales and revising Rhigyfarch’s eleventh-century ‘Life’ of St David (or Dewi) so that Dewi became superior to Teilo and any reference to his consecration by Dyfrig was removed, but the matter was not to be decided in Wales. The growing power of the Anglo-Norman church and a reforming papacy meant that recognition from the pope and the archbishop of Canterbury was crucial to the success of Llandaff’s cause, and the manuscript carefully documents how Urban sought to achieve this. He owed his position to the Normans; having been appointed by Henry I and consecrated by archbishop Anselm in 1107, he was one of the first Welsh bishops to be installed by authorities from outside Wales, and the first known to have sworn canonical obedience to Canterbury. Liber Landavensis reflects this new reality, claiming (falsely) in the ‘Life’ of Euddogwy that Llandaff had been subject to Canterbury and obedient to English kings since the time of St Augustine, and that its customs were the same as those of the English. Similarly, Urban’s involvement in ecclesiastical affairs on a European level was novel for a Welsh bishop. He attended the Council of Rheims in 1119, where he first appealed to pope Calixtus II for recognition of the status of Llandaff; he received Cardinal John of Crema, the first papal legate known to have visited Wales, in 1125; he attended the Councils of Westminster in 1125 and 1127, and took part in the consecration of English bishops; he took his dispute with St Davids to the papal curia in person in 1128 and 1129; and he died in Italy while pursuing another case. Liber Landavensis records almost all of this, including copies of papal letters and accounts of Councils and of Urban’s journeys to Rome.
Urban was encouraged by a provisional ruling in his favour from pope Honorius II in 1128, but ultimately he lost his case. He had been presumptuous – Llandaff had only been an important church for a century or so, and Urban himself had been the first bishop of Glamorgan to style himself bishop of Llandaff – but he had made a significant difference. As a result of his ambition, St Davids won the boundary dispute and established itself as the leading Welsh diocese, Canterbury tightened its hold on Welsh bishoprics, and English churchmen were given new encouragement to take their complaints to the papal curia. Liber Landavensis bears testimony to Urban’s vision, and his failure.
A digital copy of the manuscript is available on the Library’s website, revealing text that was obscured until the volume was rebound at the Library in 2007.
Dr David Moore (Archivist)
The bronze image of Christ on the manuscript’s only surviving original oak cover board. It was probably attached shortly after being made in England in the middle of the thirteenth century. The covers are now kept separately.
During these challenging times, The National Library of Wales has continued to preserve and protect Wales’ national treasures. In addition, technology has enabled us to provide access to our collections; for the purpose of research, education, and inspiration – for all to enjoy from home!
However, behind the scenes at The Library building, our collections continue to be protected in a very practical way!
Whilst most Library staff have been able to work from their homes during this period of lockdown, the same cannot be said for our dedicated security staff – who continue to protect our vast and various items around-the-clock, twenty-four hours a day, from within the Library in Aberystwyth.
Paul Ingram, from The National Library of Wales’ security team, gives an insight into how work has continued inside the Library walls:
“Our day to day security procedures continue. There are a huge number of security checking points throughout the building, so all aspects of the Library are kept under constant surveillance. In addition, the team check and regulate the temperature and humidity levels, so that our valuable collections are safeguarded from any environmental threats.”
When asked about the changes to procedures during the current climate, Ingram said:
“Maintaining cleanliness has always been a key responsibility for the team. Our priority has always been to maintain the building to as high a standard as possible for the purpose of collection care, and staff and visitor safety. However, it is no surprise that this period has heightened our consciousness further, especially in terms of human contact. I’m sure, like many institutions, the word ‘sanitise’ has become a part of our daily vocabulary!”
The team have also faced some new challenges because of the Covid-19 epidemic, as Ingram explains:
“The only real challenge we’ve encountered is staff scheduling. Some members of our team, for various reasons, will be self-isolating for a prolonged period. As a result, particularly younger members of staff have been working further hours, taking on new responsibilities.”
However, the lockdown has brought some positive outcomes:
“This challenging time has certainly heightened our sense of team spirit, which is ironic, as we remain socially distanced during our shifts!
“We are very proud that our work ensures that all the Library’s national treasures are safeguarded during this challenging time.”
As we celebrate International Dylan Thomas Day, the Unlocking Our Sound Heritage (UOSH) engineers have been digitising interviews recorded by Colin Edwards with friends and family of Dylan Thomas. The recordings were deposited to the National Library of Wales by Mary Edwards, Colin’s wife and the transcribed tapes were edited by David N Thomas and published in his books ‘Dylan Remembered, 2 vols. (Seren and NLW 2003, 2004)’.
Here, Sophie Tupholme one of the UOSH volunteers reflects on her experience of listening and cataloguing the collection.
For the past five months, I’ve had the lovely and lucky chance to help catalogue audio recordings made by Welsh journalist Colin Edwards. Across the 1960s, Edwards completed an ambitious collection of interviews with poet Dylan Thomas’s family, friends and acquaintances – altogether creating an intricate collage of accounts and reminiscences that shed unprecedented light on the poet’s life and character.
Coming from a relatively patchy understanding of Dylan Thomas’s biography, output and icon, I had the unique chance to piece together an impression of the man, his work and his relationships from intimate sources rather than from culturally accepted notions or mythologies. I learned of and enjoyed impressions of Dylan Thomas as a generous, humorous, sometimes shy but often gregarious individual, hearing these as if a friend were relaying them to me personally. Memories of Swansea’s landmarks and Grammar School collaged together gave me as vivid a picture as if I’d visited them myself; I recognized conversations with certain schoolmasters and students, I sat in the Kardomah Café on Sunday mornings, I walked the Promenade in the cool evenings. Listening to descriptions of summer holidays at Fern Hill Farm in Carmarthen, with a myriad of family, friends and locals all contributing their stories and perspectives, I felt an overall understanding of this period and locale as if I too had visited the neighbouring farms and been for a pint in the nearby villages.
What a fascinating treat – learning about an entire world, with this remarkable man at its center, through the reminiscences and shared histories of those who knew him best. Lucky for me, I now feel as if I know the man on a level above common knowledge, purely because these interviews feel like the sharing of privileged information from the memory and mouth of a friend. And even aside from content, the beautiful language used by the poets and artists in Thomas’s acquaintance (Charles Fischer, Alfred Janes, Frances Hughes and many others) when describing his ‘liveness,’ sense of humour or love of words, was enough to leave me moved and enthralled.
I was of course not alone in this journey and these discoveries. Prolific journalist and interviewer Colin Edwards led my way, guiding the conversations to specific points, querying new insights and digging for further details, and always returning the conversation to Dylan – the ‘real’ Dylan, the Dylan of family and friends’ acquaintance. Alongside discussions of Thomas’s schooldays, life in Laugharne and travels to America, other illuminating topics came to the fore, such as his impressive theatre performances, friendships with prominent figures and artists such as Edith Sitwell and Augustus John, and travels to Florence and Rome, Prague and Iran.
Getting to know Colin Edwards throughout these interviews was in itself a fascinating process, and I was thoroughly impressed with his patience, persistence and genuine interest in his subjects. I came to anticipate his favourite questions, the tone of voice used in particular situations, the points he most wanted to uncover and push for, the sorts of anecdotes he enjoyed or would find humorous, and the formality of his voice when speaking to someone especially esteemed in Thomas’s artistic circles, compared with the ease of his conversations with ‘ordinary blokes’ or long-time family friends. Accompanying Edwards on this oral history project has felt like joining an old friend while he calls upon neighbours, enjoying intimate conversations as an attentive outsider.
It was also interesting to hear the same anecdotes and responses repeated across interviews. These repetitions signalled a shared understanding of Thomas that, often times, really departed from ideas of Dylan Thomas that pervade our cultural understanding of his character and his life. Many interviewees shared stories of Thomas insisting upon repaying debts to his friends, successfully managing his drinking so that he could write unfettered and cheerfully playing with his children. Legends of his drinking, womanizing, reckless passions and unpredictability are weakened and seem outlandish compared to the tamer memories and impressions of his family and friends. Stories of his wild antics seem to have grown arms and legs as, of course, these stories sell better than those of Thomas trying to repay his debts, drinking pints rather than hard liquor and travelling to America for money to support his family and lifestyle, rather than for experiences of debauchery and freedom from homelife.
I cannot recommend this collection highly enough. Fascinating and informative, it brings together a wonderful assortment of voices and perspectives, and immediately engages the listener – whether you feel you know nearly everything or next to nothing about Dylan Thomas and his Wales. I found that the intensity of listening to so many interviews in a short stretch of time also helped me reflect on aspects beyond Thomas’s life and character, such as the most rewarding ways to conduct an interview and which points of conversation are likely to bring about the best responses. Edwards was, without a doubt, a highly skilled and professional interviewer, and this collection presents an enviable model for going about an oral history project for those who may be interested in pursuing something similar.
Having the chance to catalogue these audiotapes has been absolutely rewarding from start to finish. It’s been a pleasure contributing to our shared cultural heritage in this avenue, ultimately enabling these preserved works to be presented anew and collectively enjoyed by new and old audiences alike.
In an old manuscript at the National Library of Wales is a treasure trove of criminal profiles and mug-shots which give us a fascinating insight into life in Mid-Wales during the late 19th century and early 20th century.
Whilst we are used to seeing portrait photography from this period, the adoption of photography by the police in their records means we are given a rare glimpse into the world of some of the poorest, most desperate and occasionally treacherous in society.
Here are my top ten profiles.
19 year old Walter Chambers described himself as a gardener from Nottingham. Living homeless, he stole a coat from a draper on Great DarkGate Street, Aberystwyth in November 1904 . An hour later he approached a policeman, admitted his crime and gave himself up. He received little sympathy though, and was imprisoned and sentenced to 21 days hard labour.
Anne Williams of Swansea was committed at Lampeter to one month of hard labour for handling stolen money in 1905, and she doesn’t look impressed.
Thomas Taylor was a labourer by trade. He was committed to 2 months hard labour in 1907 for stealing a pair of slippers. Despite the petty nature of the crime, the police wrote up a detailed description of Taylor. He was 5ft 3 ⅜ inches, with brown hair and blue eyes. He has several anchor tattoos and scars on his hands, along with a mole above his left nipple and a scar from a boil below his left buttock.
This moving picture captures a Gipsy woman named Elizabeth Boswell, who was fined for stealing from an Aberystwyth Hotel in March 1900.
James Harries had a string of convictions for petty theft spanning over a decade. His trial at Llanilar Petty Sessions in 1903 is notable for being the first time fingerprints were used as evidence in a Cardiganshire, after local police worked with Scotland Yard to connect a Harries to a number of thefts around he country.
18 year old Sarah Mary Edwards of Pennal had hazel eyes and brown hair and stood at just 4ft tall. She was sentenced to hard labour for stealing several items of clothing.
John Edward Davies of Fourcrosses, worked as a porter on the Cambrian Railway in 1899. Being in charge of the luggage carriage he stole ‘a large amount’ of jewelry on the journey between Aberystwyth and Birmingham during September 1899. He was soon caught and sentenced to 6 months of hard labour.
Kate McCarthy of Liverpool and two accomplices were sentenced to 14 days hard labour for stealing clothes from Aberystwyth.
One of the toughest punishments recorded in the register was handed to 22 year old William Jarvis. Sentenced to 12 months hard labour in 1899 for theft, he had been free for only a few months when he was found guilty of burglary at Lampeter and sentenced to 3 years penal servitude. The register shows that he offended again after his release being sentenced to hard labour on a number of occasions.
John Smythe, a 65 year old painter was committed to 7 days hard labour in 1879 for stealing a duck from Llanychaearn.
The Cardiganshire Constabulary Register of Criminals has been digitised and can be explored in full on the National Library of Wales website. All the mug-shots from the manuscript have also been shared openly on Wikimedia Commons and can be explored here.
The Ordnance Survey began with war in mind, in the shadow of the Jacobite Rising of 1745. The country continued to be mapped with an eye to military strategy and resources, although the Battle of Culloden in 1746 was the last major pitched battle on British soil.
Starting with strategically important coastlines in the southeast of England, considered vulnerable to invasion during the Napoleonic Wars, the maps were drawn at a scale of 1 inch to the mile (1:63,360, roughly equivalent to modern OS Landranger maps). Over the next few decades surveyors gradually worked their way across England and Wales. By 1810, most counties of southern England had been mapped but they were not available for sale for another half decade, after a fractious period of war, financial difficulties, and Luddite unrest.
By the 1840s all of Wales and most of England had been mapped at 1 inch to the mile. In the second half of the century, the threat of invasion having abated and the Industrial Revolution in full swing, Ordnance Survey mapping began to be guided more by economic than military concerns. The War Office conceded control of the Ordnance Survey in 1870 to the Office of Works (responsible for forestry and royal palaces), and in 1890 to the Board of Agriculture. With taxation and industry in mind, the OS County Series was born: mapping Great Britain in its entirety at the much larger and more detailed scale of 6 inches to the mile (1:10,560), with urban areas mapped at 25 inches to the mile (1:2,500). The new survey began in the 1840s, and revised editions were published until the 1950s. Created county by county, these new maps included an unprecedented level of detail.
With detail came risk. Although the maps were published and available to the public, some information was deemed too sensitive for general consumption. This was particularly so during the World Wars, when the threat of invasion loomed once more, and aerial bombardment was a new and frightening reality.
Military and industrial locations were surveyed in the Ordnance Survey’s usual detail, and were available to the military, but were omitted from the published maps.
Sometimes, the change was subtle, as in this map of Weedon Barracks in Northamptonshire. Built during the Napoleonic Wars as a store of military equipment close to the strategic Grand Junction Canal, the store was later expanded to include barracks, and extra storehouses and workshops, which were added during the First World War. The site remained in use from 1804 to 1965. The barracks are shown in detail on both maps, but on the published sheet, labels that show the site’s military use are not included. The street name ‘Ordnance Road’ remains, however, which might have given the game away!
Lavernock Fort, in Glamorgan, was a gun battery built in 1870. It was used in the Second World War to defend the Severn, an important route for Atlantic shipping, and was used as a lookout post for volunteers of the Royal Observer Corps, responsible for spotting German aircraft. All evidence of the battery was removed from the published map.
Lavernock Fort is a fairly small military installation, but some much larger sites were given the same treatment. In northern Kent, on the Thames Estuary, a 128-hectare site manufactured cordite, nitro-glycerine, and gelatine dynamite for Curtis’s & Harvey, a gunpowder company which controlled half of the British gunpowder industry in 1898. The factory, and the battery to its south, disappeared from the published map, leaving sheepwashes as almost the only landmarks.
You might be forgiven for wondering about the point of our final map if you had access only to the published version. No physical geographical features are shown, only the administrative boundaries of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire in the Humber Estuary.
At first glance the secret map does not appear any more detailed. For military eyes only, an inconspicuous cross has been added, marking Bull Sand Fort. The fort is the larger of two Humber sand forts, built on sandbanks during the First World War and extensively used in the Second World War to protect the entrance to the Humber Estuary. The fort is marked only with a cross as it was not surveyed in detail by the Ordnance Survey, but it was a significant fort, able to support 200 people, with fresh water pumped in from a natural source of fresh water under the sand. Armour on the seaward side was a foot thick. An anti-submarine steel net was stretched between the two forts, making a formidable barrier.
The removal of military installations from OS maps was at its height in the 19th century and the World Wars, but throughout the Cold War and beyond, many sensitive sites were left off the maps entirely. It took the public availability of high-resolution satellite imagery at the turn of the 21st century to render this type of censorship largely ineffective, although labels are still omitted in some cases.
Certain areas are still removed entirely from digital maps and satellite imagery, including some US military bases in the Middle East. Despite efforts to restrict access to sensitive information, new developments in mapping technology and data visualisation sometimes reveal what governments prefer to keep hidden.
In 2017, the fitness tracking app Strava released a global heatmap, aggregating data from its millions of users, each using GPS technology to record their exercise routes. In parts of Syria and Afghanistan, the only users of Strava were foreign military personnel, with the result that repeated runs around military bases created bright spots of activity, clearly identifying their location.
A blog about the work and collections of the National Library of Wales.
Due to the more personal nature of blogs it is the Library's policy to publish postings in the original language only. An equal number of blog posts are published in both Welsh and English, but they are not the same postings. For a translation of the blog readers may wish to try facilities such as Google Translate.