On 16th October 1555, Bishop Hugh Latimer, one of the three Oxford martyrs, was burned at the stake for his Protestant beliefs during the reign of the Catholic Queen Mary I. His writings, however, live on. Not only were numerous editions of his sermons published during the reign of Mary’s Protestant successor Elizabeth I, but editions printed during Latimer’s lifetime have also survived.
The National Library of Wales was recently presented with a volume of Latimer’s sermons by Clive and Patricia Coleclough of Wrexham, in memory of Mr. Emrys Thomas of Caergwrle. The book had been in the possession of Mrs. Coleclough’s family for about a century, having been bought at a bookshop in Llanrwst; unfortunately the shop no longer exists, so how it came to Wales remains a mystery.
The volume consists of a sermon preached in London on
18th January 1548 and published that year, and another seven sermons preached
before King Edward VI in 1549, again published that year; originally these were
printed as three separate publications.
The first sermon has the arms of the Duchess of Suffolk, to whom Latimer
was chaplain, on the verso of the title page.
The volume is in its original 16th-century binding, with a Tudor rose
and crown and the letters WB on the covers, no doubt the initials of the owner
who commissioned the binding.
This is the only known copy of this edition in Wales. It will now be preserved in our collections for future generations.
What springs to mind when you think of the Christmas and New Year break? A swim in the sea? Well, that’s what many will be doing on Boxing Day or 1 January. Nationwide, people will be flocking to the seaside in fancy dress to brave the sea –either to raise funds for charity, accept a challenge or a show of courage. But have you ever thought of swimming in the sea as a way of improving your health?
For centuries, physicians have noted the physical benefits of bathing in cold water, advising patients to visit seaside towns to cure illness. It was believed that bathing in saltwater over a period of weeks or months would cure lung and skin conditions, improve circulation and strengthen immunity. In the past, a visit to the seaside was regarded as more of a medicinal remedy that a holiday, and to eighteenth century doctors, the sand, waves and the beach were regarded like our pharmacy today.
‘Thalassotherapy’ is the word given to this type of medicine, first used by Hippocrates to describe the beneficial effects of seawater. It comes from the Greek thalassa meaning ‘sea’and therapeia which means ‘therapy’ or ‘healing’.
In his Remarks on Sea Air and Sea Bathing, a pamphlet published in 1862, the surgeon John Holt Elkes Stubbs notes that:
‘A cold bath is a powerful tonic, particularly with children, and bathing in the open sea is the best form.’
It also includes a description by the physician Erasmus Wilson of the importance of the skin while bathing. The skin of an individual of average height and weight has a surface area of over 2,500 square inches, and includes over 7,000,000 sweat pores. The invigorating response of an individual to seawater is as a result of both salty grains which revive the skin and the shock from contact with the cold waves.Disease was averted and illness cured through the absorption of these salty particles by the skin.
The sea also had medicinal benefits for consumption or tuberculosis sufferers until the end of the epidemic in the 1860s. Some physicians went further urging patients to drink seawater as a medicine – enhancing its taste by the addition of honey or milk was permitted. Dr.Richard Russell prescribed bathing and drinking seawater for Leprosy. In his treatise published in 1750, A Dissertation on the Use of Seawater in the Diseases of the Glands, Particularly, the Scurvy, Jaundice, King’s Evil,Leprosy and the Glandular Consumption, he describes a sufferer covered in leporous spots. His cure was to sea bathe daily and drink a pint of saltwater each morning for nine months!
Sea temperature does not generally rise above 67°F (19.4 Celsius). So if you are brave enough to dip into the cold sea for your health on 1 January, go for it! Just be grateful that the practice of drinking saltwater with milk has not continued to this day!
The information above is derived from the medical section of the Welsh Print Collection. This collection of Welsh and Welsh interest printed works on medicine and health dates from 1750s. It contains 6,500 items including books on early medicine, herbal remedies, reports by urban and rural health officers,and reports of hospitals and mental health institutions. It also houses a complete set of reports and minutes of the King Edward VII Welsh National Memorial Association (WNMA). A health organisation established in 1911, as a precursor to the NHS, to provide free healthcare for Tuberculosis sufferers.
‘Medicine and Health in Wales before the NHS’ is a new NLW project, funded by the Wellcome Foundation. These medical treasures, hidden for too long, will be catalogued and digitised over the course of the next year ensuring online access to a wealth of information for the public, students and historians of medicine.
Branwen Rhys Project Manager, Medicine and Health in Wales before the NHS
18 December is United Nations’ International Migrants Day, and ‘Migration with Dignity’ is the theme this year. The choices that people make in life are dignified ‘by paying them respect, and we respect them by treating those who make such choices with dignity’.
This year, the theme of ‘Migration’ and the European Year of Cultural Heritage brought together two cultural heritage programmes, Europeana and People’s Collection Wales, to work together for the first time. Their aim was to capture individuals’ personal experiences of migration, so they may be shared, understood, and respected.
A Thousand Voices – A Multicultural Community in Newport
Last month, a Collection Day was organised in Newport to capture the stories of people who had moved to Wales from overseas. The event was co-ordinated and held by People’s Collection Wales as part of Europeana’s campaign to hold Collection Days across Europe on the theme of ‘migration’.
This was the second of two events that People’s Collection Wales held in Wales as part of the campaign – the first was at the Millennium Centre in Cardiff in July. There were eighteen events across Europe altogether, with others in Brussels, Limerick, Utrecht, Luxembourg, Sibiu, Den Haag, Belgrade, Zagreb, Dublin and Pisa.
Members of the local community in Newport brought along photographs, documents, artworks and other various objects which helped illustrate the story of their movement. The materials were digitized and will be published on Europeana and the People’s Collection websites. Many shared their stories through oral recollections too.
A total of 15 individuals shared their stories as part of the Collection Day including:
Rahila, who moved from Pakistan to Wales in 1979 after her grandparents had arranged for her to marry a gentleman living in Newport. She had three children and worked for several mental health organisations, raising awareness particularly among the BME community.
Afia, a former lecturer, also originally from Pakistan. She, along with other members of her family moved to Wales in 2007. As part of the Collection Day, Afia contributed a mixed material photo album that was sewed by a Stitching Group at Community House. Her photographs include the peace celebrations of ‘Peace Mala’ at Newport, a Mehndi party at Community House, and a personal photo of her family near the twelfth highest mountain in Pakistan ‘Rakaposhi’.
Claire, who was born and raised in Houston, Texas. She met her husband Richard, from Wales, whilst studying in California. Both moved to Wales in 1975, with their five year old daughter and three year old son. Claire led a successful career as a teacher and head teacher after moving to Wales.
Roy, originally from Jamaica, he moved to Birmingham at 19 years of age to start an engineering apprenticeship. He relocated to Newport in 1962 where he continued his career in engineering. Roy, along with his wife, raised a family in Newport.
Ingrid was born and raised in London, before her family moved to Gloucester when she was 17. After completing her teaching PGCE in Leicester, Ingrid moved to Sierra Leone to work as a maths and physics teacher. She returned to the UK and accepted a teaching position at Newport in 1972. Ingrid also shared her grandmother’s story during the Collection Day and contributed her memoir as an item to be digitised. Her grandmother, Lena Kasmir, was born into a Jewish family near Kiev (now Ukraine) in 1894. Due to prevalence of anti-Semitism at the beginning of the 20th century, her family eventually moved to London, where Ingrid’s mother was born and raised.
Ten years of People’s Collection Wales and Europeana
Both Europeana and People’s Collection Wales this year celebrated the tenth anniversary.
Europeana is Europe’s digital cultural heritage platform. Since launching in 2008, the number of objects on the Europeana platform has increased more than tenfold from 4.5 million to more than 50 million. NLW has worked on other projects with Europeana, giving access through the platform to some of our most well-known digital collections, most notably the Geoff Charles and John Thomas photographic collections and the Welsh landscape collection. We have also contributed to the EuropeanaTravel, EuropeanaCloud and the Europeana280 projects, and, most recently, the ‘Rise of Literacy‘ project.
People’s Collection Wales is a cultural heritage programme funded by the Welsh Government. It seeks to capture and share the stories of the people of Wales. This digital platform gives individuals, communities and memory institutions a place to share and curate their collections in meaningful ways. The People’s Collection continues to collect stories of individuals and communities in Wales and beyond.
Do you have a story to share? Or perhaps you would like to capture stories in your community? We’d love to help you to share your stories with Wales and the world. Contact us at People’s Collection Wales.
Elen Haf Jones, Digital Access Project Officer & Dafydd Tudur, Head of the Digital Access Section
This month the National Library of Wales has opened the doors to a new gallery in Glan-yr-afon (The Riverside) in the heart of Haverfordwest. The gallery is the centre piece to a high quality culture and arts centre including a modern library, children’s area, tourist information, coffee shop and even a gaming zone for young adults.
The aim of the gallery is to reach out beyond Aberystwyth and enable the Library to share treasures with locals and visitors to the area. Over the last two years our team has been working in conjunction with Pembrokeshire County Council on the project. There will be two new exclusive exhibitions displaying various items from The National Library of Wales’ collection – The Story of Pembrokeshire and Kyffin Williams: Land and Sea.
The Story of Pembrokeshire
Visitors can expect to see a rich and varied collection of exhibits specially chosen by our curator to represent the history, culture and landscape of Pembrokeshire. Particular favourites of ours are an original letter from ‘Rebecca’ to the Vicar of Penbryn during the Rebecca Riots and Haverfordwest-born Gwen John’s beautifully understated yet strongly composed Vase of Flowers.
More unique items include a manuscript of sonnets composed by T.E. Nicholas in 1940 whilst in prison – written on prison toilet paper!
Aside from all the tangible exhibits you can also browse images of maps, photographs, manuscripts and paintings from the National Library of Wales’ collection. From the earliest Welsh book to J. M W. Turner’s eminent oil painting of Dolbadarn Castle, as well as items relating to Pembrokeshire, from topographical prints to photographs and works of art.
Williams: Land and Sea
What better way to close the centenary celebrations and the ‘Year of the Sea’ than with an exhibition featuring a fantastic collection of paintings and drawings by Wales’ most well-known and prolific artists of the 20th century.
Some of Kyffin’s most iconic works are the oil paintings of Welsh landscapes, and this exhibition highlights some of the best in this genre. Look out for Penygyrwyd – the strong dark palette of the artist brings the dramatic mountain ranges of Snowdonia to Haverfordwest. In contrast, a selection of Patagonia paintings following his visit to South America in the late 1960s show Kyffin at his happiest, where the colour palette is much lighter and reflective of his mood at the time.
A selection of his best seascapes are on display. The powerful Wave breaking on Rocks shows how the paint has become an extension of the artist’s climactic emotions. Kyffin’s seascapes exemplify his technique for which he is best-known; a style characterised by a thick impasto, with the oil paint applied almost exclusively with a palette knife.
On the way out of the gallery you cannot fail to notice the calm, warm Sunset on Anglesey– a most reflective painting reputed to be one of the artists’ last before his death in 2006.
We could continue to sing the praises of this fabulous new building, but don’t just take our word for it – why not go and check it out for yourself!
Glan-yr-afon is open Monday to Saturday (10am-5pm) and Tuesdays (10am-7pm).
In this, the final ‘Year of the Sea’ Blog, we overview the Library’s collection of marine charts dating from 1800.
Charts are primarily intended for navigation and should provide clear, correct and up to date information to help plan, plot and navigate a safe course. Charts also provide researchers with information on the natural and man-made marine and coastal environment, past and present.
From the late seventeenth century the British became the foremost of chart makers. Over time, technological advances produced better charts which revealed earlier oversights and errors, for instance the Pembrokeshire chart of 1812 shown here mentions corrections to Lewis Morris’s earlier survey whilst the 1857-1859 chart records both sea and coast in intricate detail.
British private enterprises gradually gave way to the work of the Hydrographic Office of the Admiralty, now the UKHO, which was established in 1795, primarily to furnish Royal Navy requirements. The UKHO remains one of the world’s principal hydrographic organizations, its charts being widely supplied to navies, merchant shipping and the public.
Over 15,750 UKHO electronic charts are currently available, although the Library only receives copies of their 3,500 sheet editions through legal deposit. The Library’s 12,000 modern charts encompass locations worldwide and are mainly received from the UKHO, together with their associated publications including Notices to Mariners and Pilot Books.
Supplementary collections include Admiralty Fleet charts originally only available to the Royal Navy and some recent publications from Australia, New Zealand, the USA, Canada, Argentina and the Philippines.
A smaller number of charts derive from British commercial publishers whose home waters and overseas charts are aimed at leisure users and fishermen. The collections can be accessed through the Library’s online catalogue and UKHO catalogue.
Map collectors habitually proclaim that modern charts are not as aesthetically appealing as their antiquarian forerunners in which errant sea monsters and mermaids recurrently appear. Contemporary charts do however contain the most pertinent, accurate and unequivocal information on the marine environment. Crucially they protect lives at sea and need to be heeded when sailing. Use this hard-won information wisely and never forget the naval adage ‘A collision at sea can ruin your entire day’.
For almost 100 years Coleg Harlech was one of Wales’s foremost educational establishments. It was established in 1927 by Thomas Jones CH (who had been cabinet secretary to both David Lloyd George and Stanley Baldwin) with the aim of providing residential adult education, especially to those who hadn’t had the opportunities of education. Students came from all over Wales and many former students went on to play key roles in the life of the nation.
Following the closure of the college in 2017, the Library began discussion with Adult Learning Wales to ensure that the college’s archive was preserved. This wonderful collection traces the whole history of Coleg Harlech through documents such as annual reports, minutes, correspondence, registers, prospectuses and photographs. It contains plans for the development of the college site and documents which bring the student experience to life. A book on the first 50 years of Coleg Harlech was published in 1977, I’m sure that the archive contains plenty of material for further books and articles.
The archive is a large one and will probably fill more than 100 archival boxes, so packing and moving it would have been challenging, even in the best of circumstances. Unfortunately, the dates we’d arranged to collect the archive – Thursday 20th and Friday 21st September coincided with the arrival of Storm Bronagh! I’d been up to Coleg Harlech to make preparations to move the archive beforehand; listing what there was to move, packing the archive in boxes and putting them all in one place. It was also a good opportunity to plan how we would physically move things – for example checking where could we park the van, how would we get the boxes out and whether there were there any steps.
So, in the middle of the heavy rain and high winds were we loading the Coleg Harlech archive in the van. We always plan for bad weather and the blankets and covers we’d brought to keep the boxes dry while being moved did their job. The archive stayed dry – but we got soaked!
As it was such a large archive, we needed to make two trips to Harlech and by the send day the heavy rain had caused roads to flood. Our trip to Harlech was diverted via Mallwyd and Cemmaes Road due to the Dyfi Bridge being closed. Our return journey was even longer as further flooding meant we had to travel via Caersws and Llangurig. The flooding at one point looked passable, but we decided not too risk it just in case water did get into the van and the precious archive would be turned into slush!
Coleg Harlech was also home to a fascinating library which included a substantial collection of political books. Sadly we weren’t able to take the library was well – the books are in the National Library’s collection in any case – but we were able to preserve the library catalogue as part of the archive. This comprises 120 books listing the contents of the library by location and author.
The archive is now safely at the National Library of Wales and we aim to start sorting and cataloguing it in the new year. It will be a complicated project, but it will mean that the records of Wales’ ‘second-chance college’ will be available for researchers for the future.
Conscription came into effect in January 1916 through The Military Service Act; this required adult males to register for military service, unless they possessed a certificate of exemption. Men could apply to local tribunals, made up of borough or district councillors, for exemption on the grounds of:
that the man was engaged in work of national importance;
that the man was training for a role of national importance;
family or financial hardship; or
a conscientious objection.
Members of the local tribunals were not trained and their decisions were highly inconsistent; therefore, county tribunals were set up to adjudicate in cases where men were appealing against the decision of the local tribunals. In 1921, the Government ordered that all county tribunal records should be destroyed; nevertheless the Cardiganshire records survived and were deposited at the NLW in 1924 by George Eyre Evans and Sgt. Major Thomas Richard Fear (founder of the ‘Aberystwyth Comforts for Fighters Fund’). Now the archive is completely unique in Wales, and one of the few of its kind that exists in the United Kingdom.
Completing the Application for Exemption forms, that were presented in English, would in itself have posed a significant challenge to the mainly monolingual applicants, who would often have to rely on their employer or an educated member of the community to apply on their behalf. The information within the Tribunals Records offers an insight to the personal circumstances of those applying for exemption, as well as the impact of conscription on rural communities.
For example, in April, 1916, Davies & Edwards, Corn & Flour Merchants, Baker and General Grocer, based at Mile End, Lampeter, apply for exemption on behalf of Thomas Davies Evans, as follows:- “Thomas Davies Evans is the only male servant employed by us. He does the carting of incoming and outgoing Grain Stuffs, and has to handle generally every day a considerable number of Sacks of Flour (280 lbs), Maize (240 lbs), and other heavy grain; cart and deliver the same to Cottages and Farms up to a distance of about 10 miles from Lampeter. Having regard to the heavy and arduous nature of grain handling, and also to the Compensation Acts, a man of his capacity is absolutely indispensable to our Grain trade. We maintain that by delivering Foodstuffs he supplies essential domestic needs of the district.”
The local tribunal grants him exemption for 3 months, stating:- “Davies and Edwards state that they cannot carry on the business of grain and corn merchants without the aid of this man, as they have failed to find a substitute, and under the circumstances wethought that theyought to have at least two or three months to disperse of that branch of their business, which they state is about two-thirds of their whole business.”
However, Llewelyn Bankes Price, the Military Representative for the area, contests this decision stating “that no serious hardship would ensue if this man were called up for Army service”.
As with the majority of appeals, the county tribunal adjudicates in May 1916 – “that the man be not exempted”. Thomas Davies Evans leaves his home town of Lampeter to serve in the Royal Engineers; sadly, he will never return. His fate can be traced by referencing the Welsh National Book of Remembrance, which was recently transcribed and indexed as part of the ‘Wales For Peace’ programme.
The Cardiganshire Great War Appeals Tribunals Records were digitised and made available to the public through an online crowdsourcing resource recently developed by the NLW, while financial support from the Heritage Lottery Fund enabled NLW staff to visit community groups to train their members in how to use the online resource to transcribe and index the records. Thanks to the dedication of over 200 volunteers, the collection can now be searched by name, address, date, etc.
To view The Cardiganshire Great War Appeals Tribunals Records, please visit the Archives section of the Digital Gallery on – www.library.wales
In the wake of the Armistice Day Centenary commemorations, it is perhaps timely to draw attention to the Library’s maps relating to the conflicts of the First World War, a cataclysm in which 20 million lives were lost, some 40,000 being Welsh.
The Library’s many war maps and atlases display frontlines, trenches and other military paraphernalia, the war’s geopolitical impact in changing political boundaries, post-war redevelopment schemes and even include recreational map-based war games. The maps are of both military and civilian origin, the latter published to inform the public and boost morale.
Some two hundred maps have been digitised as part of the Library’s War Centennial programme. Included are these two examples of maps from the unsuccessful Gallipoli Campaign – which was associated with inaccurate maps that regularly included outdated information gathered during the Crimean War.
The Gallipoli collection comprises contemporary War Office maps such as the two illustrated examples showing Ottoman defences on the campaign’s opening day and a later map of ANZAC positions, together with commercially published sheets.
The Allied attack on Turkey’s Gallipoli peninsula, popularly known as the Gallipoli or the Dardanelles Campaign, lasted from April 1915 to January 1916. Here, British Empire and French forces engaged the Ottoman Empire in an unsuccessful attempt to aid Russia and break the impasse on the fighting fronts by opening a shipping route with Russia unimpeded by excessive winter sea ice and extreme distance.
A failed naval attack in the Dardanelles Strait in early 1915 progressed to a major land invasion on 25th April by British and French troops together with the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps or ANZAC forces. A later landing occurred at Suvla Bay on 6th August.
Allied intelligence deficiencies, indecision and delay, combined with fierce Ottoman resistance thwarted headway and success and mired the belligerents in an entrenched battle of attrition and consequential heavy casualties. The British authorized evacuation began in December 1915, and ended the following January.
Explore Your Archive is a campaign guided by the Archives and Records Association to raise awareness of archives across the UK and Ireland. The campaign, which runs all year, will be launched in Wales in Gwynedd Archives on 16 November. The Library is contributing to the campaign by focusing on the five items which have been enrolled on the UNESCO Memory of the World UK Register. UNESCO established the Memory of the World Programme in 1992 to highlight the value of the documentary heritage as reflecting and promoting the understanding of national memory and identity and for underpinning good governance and sustainable development. UNESCO states that that the documentary heritage should be permanently accessible and re-usable to all without hindrance.
Since its foundation, the Library has been committed to collecting, preserving and giving access to all kinds and forms of recorded knowledge, especially relating to Wales and the Welsh and other Celtic peoples, for the benefit of all. Every day during the launch week, the Library will focus upon one of the enrolled items and promote it through its Twitter account. There will also be talks about the fascinating story of the discovery of the film The Life History of Lloyd George and the work of the Library’s conservation section. Tickets are available through the Library’s website.
During Tudor and Stuart times, heraldic visitations were tours of inspection undertaken by Heralds or their deputies to scrutinise, register and record the coats of arms of the nobility and gentry in England, Wales and Ireland. Having recently purchased a fine pedigree roll of the period, the National Library invited two modern-day heralds to visit us in October: the present Wales Herald Extraordinary, Mr Thomas Lloyd, and his predecessor, the sprightly 90-year old Dr Michael Powell Siddons.
They are seen here inspecting (and no doubt approving of) the heraldic roll, dated 3 December 1591, which was recently purchased by the Library at auction in Shrewsbury. The roll (now NLW MS 24125G) traces the pedigree of Frances Vichan (or Vaughan), heiress of Hergest Court, Herefordshire to ‘Kradog, Earle of Herefourde, Lord of Radnor and Knight of ye Round Table in King Arthur’s time’. Frances married Herbert Jeffreys of Kirham Abbey, Yorkshire, whose grandfather, Col. Herbert Jeffreys, had been Governor of Virginia.
The 2-metre long roll, which seems to be in the hand of Richard Adams, scribe and painter of Ludlow, was produced by Thomas Jones (c. 1530-1609) of Fountain Gate, Cardiganshire. Jones, the almost mythical ‘Twm Siôn Cati’, is popularly depicted in later literature as a brigand and rogue, and is sometimes described as ‘the Welsh Robin Hood’. In real life, he was a canny producer of pedigrees for the up-and-coming Welsh nobility, and had cornered the market for ornate displays of prestige and one-upmanship on parchment. Strict accuracy was not always a primary consideration, and having appealed to the vanity of his patrons, one can almost imagine this entrepreneur’s smirk as the pocketed the proceeds of his latest venture.
A blog about the work and collections of the National Library of Wales.
Due to the more personal nature of blogs it is the Library's policy to publish postings in the original language only. An equal number of blog posts are published in both Welsh and English, but they are not the same postings. For a translation of the blog readers may wish to try facilities such as Google Translate.