Posted - 23-04-2018 No Comments


Wot! No offside rule

The Llwyn estate in Llanfyllin, Montgomeryshire, was bought by the Dugdale family in 1852. Their business interests were in Lancashire, but they were soon playing a part in Montgomeryshire county politics and local causes.

In November 1900, John Marshall Dugdale set aside part of the field where “the Union boys play football” for the use of the boys of the Llanfyllin Board School, and provided a football. Union probably refers to Llanfyllin Workhouse, rather than rugby union. Even though, coincidentally, Dugdale,  had played in the first ever rugby union international, Scotland v. England, in 1871.

John Pentyrch Williams, the headmaster’s only stipulation was that the boys should write a letter of thanks, including a copy of the rules of the game. The boys, “poor innocents”, expected the headmaster to provide a copy for them to copy out, but were told “You must write in your own fashion.”

The headmaster sent Dugdale the boys’ letter and rules, “without any addition or alteration. The lads are young and get very few chances of writing what they call a real letter”. There are only two rules: the ball is not to be taken without three members present, and only school boys are to use the ball or the patch.

There would have been a third rule, but, in their words, “And glad to say Sir that our boys are not used to cursing or swearing or else that would be one of the rules no cursing or swearing allowed in the play.”

Where the girls were during all this is not explained. Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose. Or not, as the case may be.

Llwyn mansion was sold to Montgomeryshire Education Authority in about 1947, and demolished in 1975 when Ysgol Uwchradd Llanfyllin was extended.


Stephen Benham
Assistant Archivist

Tags: , , ,

Posted - 20-04-2018 No Comments

#LoveMaps / Collections / Digitisation / Research

Old Periodicals, a New Datatype and Spiderfied Query Results in Wikidata

Several years ago the National Library of Wales appointed the Worlds first Wikidata Visiting Scholar. The volunteer, Simon Cobb, has worked with the library ever since to share, enrich and explore the library’s data using Wikidata – a massive open access linked data repository which contains tens of millions of pieces of data on just about every subject imaginable. In this guest blog, Simon presents his recent work, using open library data on periodicals, publishers and printers in conjunction with the latest Wikidata visualization tools. Jason Evans, National Wikimedian.

Recent developments in Wikidata have made it possible to display more items from the National Library of Wales’ collections on a map. A cluster feature in the Wikidata Query Service map view has enhanced geolocation data visualisation and the new geoshape datatype provides access points for content discovery.

Previously, the display of geolocated images was hampered by only one item per coordinate location being shown on the map. Since a SPARQL query can return multiple results with an identical location this was never an ideal situation. The problem is, in fact, inherent to linked data because every item with a specific relationship to a place will appear at exactly the same point on the map. This is due to the coordinates being attached to the place rather than each individual item.

If the item is an image of Aberystwyth Castle, it depicts the castle and, conversely, the castle is depicted by the image. This is a semantic relationship between the subject (image) and object (castle). The location of the castle is recorded as latitude and longitude coordinates, and thus a query to show on a map the location that the image depicts will use these coordinates. Other images that depicts Aberystwyth Castle will also have these exact coordinates.


The marker cluster plugin was implemented to address this problem and it is now possible to view two or more items with the same coordinates. Nearby map markers are grouped using an animated clustering functionality to display an increasing number of clusters, with fewer markers in each, as one zooms in closer. The real gamechanger, however, is the spiderfied markers. Rather than having a solitary marker at a shared location, multiple markers now spiral outwards from a central point, with legs being used to retain their attachment to the precise location and thus show all items in situ.


Spiderfied markers of periodicals published in Carmarthen. Unexpanded clusters and single markers are also shown. Each marker contains the periodical’s title, place of publication and cover image (if available). This map is available at:


Carmarthen is an important town in the early history of printing in Wales. Some twenty-eight titles in the Welsh Journals and Welsh Newspapers Online digital collections were printed in the town, with twenty-six being first issued before 1900. These periodicals have the same place of publication (i.e. Carmarthen), and thus appear on the map at their shared coordinates. The markers are spiderfied, colour coded according to decade of publication and arranged in a chronologically ordered spiral, starting in the centre with the earliest publication.

In late 2017, a new geoshape datatype was implemented in Wikidata. As the name suggests, it is for storing geographic information in a manner that will produce shapes on a map. Geoshape data can be a single marker at a specific point, a line between two or more points, or a shape, known as a polygon, which is the area enclosed by a point-to-point line, traversing at least four points, with the first and last point being identical. A line or shape is created by structuring geocoordinates to represent the relationship between a series of points; somewhat like a dot-to-dot puzzle. Additional data about a place, such as the address, postcode, website or Wikipedia article, can be attached to a geoshape.


The National Library of Wales was the UK’s first Wikidata geoshape. The popup information box includes an image, link to the NLW Wikipedia article and SPARQL queries of the Library’s collections. Markers indicate features of interest and provide images from different vantage points.


Since a geoshape can contain multiple points, lines and polygons, it is possible to store data about a group of related locations like, for example, buildings with a similar use. This is a great way to visualise the booktrade locations in Wales that have been added to Wikidata.

Multipolygon geoshape data showing book trade locations in Carmarthen, past and present. These locations and those in other parts of Wales are stored as a single geoshape in Wikimedia Commons (see

Whilst the book trade locations geoshapes are relatively simple and, therefore, not burdensome to create manually, others, like, for instance, those of castles depicted in the Welsh Landscape Collection, are much more complex. The intricate geoshapes that are formed by sections of perimeter wall between towers or bastions and surrounding the bailey and keep of a castle can be slow and fiddly to make but, luckily, we can draw on linked data instead. A link is forged when an OpenStreetMap feature is tagged with a Wikidata ID and this enables a SPARQL query to retrieve OpenStreetMap data about Wikidata items in the results. Such linking can make a large amount of existing geoshape data accessible.


Geoshapes of buildings shown in the Welsh Landscape Collection prints shown in the historic counties of Wales. The buildings are OpenStreetMap features, tagged with the qid of a Wikidata item returned by a SPARQL query, imported as geoshape data and combined with historic county geoshapes from Wikimedia Commons.


Geoshapes of buildings shown in the Welsh Landscape Collection prints shown in the historic counties of Wales. The buildings are OpenStreetMap features, tagged with the qid of a Wikidata item returned by a SPARQL query, imported as geoshape data and combined with historic county geoshapes from Wikimedia Commons.

The results of a SPARQL query to retrieve images from the Welsh Landscape Collection can be visualised on a map with geoshapes to represent the building depicted. Shown above, the results for Tintern Abbey are spiderfied to expand a cluster of images with an identical geocoordinates from a single point within the geoshape. Previously, it was only possible to display one of these images on the map view results.


Simon Cobb, Wikidata Visiting Scholar at the National Library of Wales

Tags: , , , , , , , ,

Posted - 19-04-2018 No Comments

#LoveMaps / Collections / News and Events

#LoveMaps – Bob Silvester

Dr Bob Silvester, FSA, Visiting Professor, University of Chester takes part in our #LoveMaps campaign.

A professional archaeologist for all of his working life, first in Devon and Somerset and later in Norfolk, he moved to Wales in 1989 when appointed deputy director of the Clwyd-Powys Archaeological Trust. He retired from CPAT at the beginning of 2016, and for research purposes he is now affiliated to the Department of History and Archaeology at the University of Chester. His interest in all types of historic maps, but especially estate mapping, emerged during his time in the Norfolk fenlands where maps were a vital adjunct to the fieldwork that was unravelling the development of the historic landscape. Over the last twenty-five years his interest in mapping has grown, and now with retirement, he is able to spend more time immured in local record offices and, of course, the National Library, examining maps of east Wales and the adjacent border counties in England.

William Williams’ Denbigh and Flint

As an archaeologist I have found little of interest in county maps. Almost invariably they were drawn at a scale too small to show details of the landscape changes that are significant for us in our studies. Over years of working in north-east Wales, however, I’d periodically come across references to William Williams’ New map of Denbigh and Flint, generally attributed to 1720 or 1721, in books and articles without encountering the map itself. What such references shared in common was the claimed connection with a handful of others from the early eighteenth century, together exemplifying a ‘new wave’ of county maps that succeeded those of Saxton, Norden and Speed from the end the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth centuries, with William Williams’ map the sole Welsh representative in a distinguished line-up .

William Williams himself had an interesting if relatively brief career, producing some elegant estate surveys in the mid-1730s for big landowners in north-east Wales and Cheshire, before succumbing to a ‘gout in his stomach’ in 1739. He is though better known outside Wales for his volume of architectural drawings entitled Oxonia Depicta published in 1732-33. It was inevitable that in studying his estate surveys, I’d look at Williams’ earlier cartographic work, and two perhaps not unrelated facts soon emerged. One was that little had been written about the surveyor, a recent writer on Oxford’s historic architecture terming him obscure, which is probably in the context of middle England a fair comment. And of his county map, the only comments of substance are in a paper compiled by the National Library’s Glyn Walters in 1968. More intriguingly, it was apparent in 1968 and even more so today that despite the fact that this purports to be a printed map, only one original copy is known – that housed in the National Library – which might go some way to explaining why so little has been written about it.

At first sight Williams’ map is rather different from its county predecessors. It is in modern parlance ‘very busy’. There is hardly a square inch of spare space because the compiler has packed in around the perimeter of the map a large number of armorial shields, each seemingly crossed referenced by number or letter to the houses of the aristocracy and gentry that are marked on the map itself. For the most prominent families – the Grosvenors, the Mostyns, the Wynns – the heraldry is accompanied by drawn elevations of their principal country residences. As if this were not enough blank areas around the mapped counties are filled in with prospects of Chester and Denbigh, two of the counties’ great churches – Wrexham and Gresford – though not we might note the cathedral at St Asaph, and the lead works or ‘workhouse’ at Gadlis near Flint. Yet evidence is accumulating, though it’s something I’m still working on, that Williams adopted elements of Saxton’s late sixteenth-century map or perhaps more likely one of its later derivatives for his own plan, rather than surveying the two counties anew. He then corrected or updated place-names, perhaps removed one or two buildings that had disappeared during the previous century and a half, but compensated by adding large numbers of mansions as well some major roads.

There aren’t as far as I have been able to establish many published maps which displayed the characteristic of a map encompassed by the arms of the region’s leading landowners, though perhaps a reader of this blog may be better informed than I am. One that has just been fully published by the Cambridgeshire Records Society is Jonas Moore’s Mapp of the Great Levell of the Fenns from 1658, another is John Senex’s A New General Atlas… published in London where the numerous subscribers to his world atlas are represented across numerous introductory pages by their coats-of-arms. The date of the General Atlas – 1721 – is significant in the context of William Williams’ work, not least because at the end of the title band on the county map is inscribed L Senex sculp.t

Digital version of this map

Posted - 16-04-2018 No Comments

#LoveMaps / Collections / Digitisation / Uncategorized

Lewis Morris and his quest “to search carefully for those dangers, which all others endeavour as carefully to avoid”

The Welsh Assembly Government has designated 2018 the ‘Year of the Sea’ and fittingly sea charts and other matters maritime will be topics of the day in ‘Charting the Seas’ the forthcoming Carto-Cymru Symposium at the National Library on 18th May.

Consequently this is an appropriate time to recall the life and labours of Lewis Morris, Wales’s most esteemed hydrographer.

Lewis Morris (1701-1765) was a member of the celebrated family known as the ‘Morrisiaid Môn’, or the ‘Morrises of Anglesey’ who are remembered for their cultural endeavours. Lewis Morris was a polymath, being not only a hydrographer, but also a land surveyor, customs officer, antiquary, literary scholar, philologist and mineralogist.

His work in land and marine surveying has received scant attention until recently. Morris’s marine survey of the Welsh coast, undertaken with very little official support, was a supreme pioneering achievement, especially for a self-taught hydrographer. It is for this survey that he is now recognized as one of the most eminent of British cartographers.


Morris was raised near Dulas Bay in Anglesey and living near the sea, he would have observed vessels engaged in coastal trade or on passage to and from Liverpool and witnessed or heard about shipwrecks around the region’s hazardous  coasts.

He became an estate surveyor and then a customs official on Anglesey and listened to  seamen bemoan the inadequacies of contemporary local charts. In the interests of safer navigation Morris decided to embark on the immense task of surveying the Welsh coast, despite never having been formally trained as a marine surveyor. Welsh chart making had been neglected and shipping casualties were frequent. The poor condition of Welsh roads meant that coastal sea transport was more common at this time.

In 1734 Morris unsuccessfully placed his proposals before the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, but both the Admiralty and the Customs Commissioners refused him a survey vessel and he was obliged to hire one, at his own expense.

Morris embarked on his venture at Beaumaris in July 1737. Further complications and setbacks ensued and only in 1748, with an economic upturn following the war with France together with  Admiralty encouragement were his charts published. Morris’s large general  chart showed the coast from Llandudno to Milford Haven and  twenty-five of his harbour plans were published in Plans of harbours, bars, bays and roads in St. George’s Channel, a small volume which sold well. All of his charts were a significant improvement on earlier ones and provided a wealth of information on local conditions and hazards. These works preceded improved charts from Admiralty surveys by about seventy years.

Morris’s son William revised and extended the general chart in 1800 to show the coast from Liverpool to Cardiff  and his enhanced volume published in 1801 contained additional plans of harbours which had often increased in importance during the intervening years, such as Liverpool, Amlwch, Aberaeron, New Quay, Carmarthen Bay harbours, Burry, Swansea and Dublin.


Gwilym Tawy

Map Curator


Posted - 13-04-2018 No Comments


Kyffin 100 – 1918-2018

Unfurl and fly the banners, blow the trumpets, 2018 is the year we celebrate the centenary of the birth of Sir Kyffin Williams (Kyffin 100 – 1918-2018) – one of Wales’ greatest benefactors. John Kyffin Williams, artistic giant, patriot and Wales’ most successful artist. He was an ambassador for the arts, a great supporter of his fellow artists and of the development of Art Galleries in Wales.

Kyffin the masterly portrait and landscape painter, cartoonist and limerick writer. During his life, he lived to be 88 years old, he painted relentlessly for 60 of those years and when asked in 2004, how many paintings he had painted, his ready reply was “thousands”. Kyffin walked the locations where no other artists ventured, he witnessed nature at its most glorious, a blanket of fog hugging the slopes of a lonely cwm, “the light hitting – when it comes through the clouds and the clouds are moving, and the light hits the breast of a hill”, dramatic waterfalls with their waters as white as driven snow and deep snow on mountainous crags. All these scenes transferred magically to canvas and 20”x16” pieces of paper.

For 30 years approx. he was senior Art Master at Highgate School in London (1944-1973) and remained a teacher after his retirement, sharing his expertise with others, taking delight in welcoming classes of school children to his home at Pwllfanogl in Llanfair P.G. Ynys Môn, and distributing prints of his iconic paintings, liberally.

In 1968/1969 he visited Patagonia on a Churchill Foundation scholarship and recorded the people, the landscape, the animals, birds and flowers of that far away Welsh colony. On his return to Wales, following many exhibitions, he presented his unique collection to the National Library. Over the years many other paintings were presented by Kyffin to the Library. The Library houses the largest collection of his works in the world. Kyffin also presented over 400 of his paintings to Oriel Môn in his home town of Llangefni in Sir Fôn – a majestic collection of paintings. Oriel Môn houses the Oriel Kyffin Williams opened in 2008 as a tribute to Sir Kyffin’s massive artistic contribution to Anglesey and to the whole of Wales and beyond.

Kyffin was a passionate believer in the importance of tradition in art, he believed ‘mood’ and ‘love’ were vital. He had great admiration for Van Gogh and Rembrandt and often spoke of his Damascus moment when he saw a picture of the fresco by Piero della Francesca, ‘The Resurrection’ at the Slade School of Fine Art, in his own words “it actually hit me, poleaxed me, the emotion in it and the mood, incredible mood, powerful, powerful mood. It made me weep”.

Kyffin wanted the best artistically for Wales, he wanted Welsh artists, sculptors and creative people to be appreciated, he wanted the museums and galleries of Wales to respect the best of creativity from the world to be seen side by side with the best from Wales.

Wales can be so proud of John Kyffin Williams. During the centenary celebrations, exhibitions will be held at the National Library in Aberystwyth, Oriel Môn in  Anglesey, at the National Museum in Cardiff, at the Cambrian Academy in Conwy, at Highgate School and the Royal Academy in London. Art Galleries will play their part with exhibitions at the Albany Gallery in Cardiff, at the Thackeray in London, at the Tegfryn Gallery in Menai Bridge, Anglesey and Glyn y Weddw in Llanbedrog near Pwllheli. There will be publications to mark the centenary with a special book published in China by Chinese artist Anita Ma – an admirer of Kyffin and his art – truly national and international centenary celebrations!

The Sir Kyffin Williams Trust is proud to act as an umbrella organization for all these events in 2018.

Contact Esther Roberts –

Posted - 12-04-2018 No Comments

#LoveMaps / Collections / News and Events

#LoveMaps – Mark Whitehead

Professor Mark Whitehead, Aberystwyth University takes part in our #LoveMaps Campaign.

Centres of Cartographic Attention

Global maps present challenges to cartographers. In attempting to represent the entire world, perplexing practical and political decisions have to be made. Practically, there is, of course, the issue of representing a three-dimensional sphere in two dimensions. This challenge has given rise to numerous map projections of the world, ranging from Mercator to Cassini, and from Goode homolosine to Gall-Peters. Each projection has its own merits, perhaps related to its ability to avoid distortion, or its potential utility for navigational purposes. Politically, there is the question of what to place at the centre of the map, and what you relegate to its peripheries. Should the focus of the map be the Greenwich Meridian or perhaps the poles (as we see in the disorienting Cassini projection)?

This political question of what should occupy the centre of our global cartographic projections provides a segue in to the map I would like to discuss within this post. This map of The World was prepared for the National Geographic Magazine ca. 1922. It has a number of interesting features. It outlines early trans-Atlantic aeroplane routes, many of which had been authorised, but not yet used (Charles Lindberg’s first solo flight across the Atlantic was not until 1927). The map also marks out several ‘unexplored regions’ in the Arctic and Antarctic. The map is based on the Van der Grinten projection. The projection is interesting for two main reasons. First, this is a ‘compromise’ map projection, which seeks to preserve the basic outlines of a Mercator map, while minimising its distortions. Second, the projection was conceived by one Alphon J. van der Grinten. Van der Grinten was an American who developed his map projections in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Van der Grinten’s nationality may help to explain why the National Geographic Magazine (the magazine of the American National Geographic Society) may have commissioned a map based on this particular projection (van der Grinten projections are commonly found in the US). What is certain is that this particular projection accentuates the size and significance of Northern Hemisphere nations like the US, while diminishing the relative size of nations nearer to the Equator.

What most interests me about this map, however, is not its projection, but its central focus. The positioning of the Americas at the heart of the map should come as no surprise: this is, of course, common for maps produced for US audiences. However, giving the Americas pride of place has interesting consequences for other countries. Russia is cut crudely in half, with parts of Siberia in the eastern hemisphere and others in the west. India is unevenly dissected with the most easterly territories (today largely constituting Bangladesh) suddenly appearing on the far west of the world map. I have never been particularly comfortable with Britain being the centre of global maps, given the colonial ideologies this has historically supported. Nevertheless, the use of the Greenwich Meridian as the centre of a world map does appear to do the least amount of damage the cartographic representation of other states of the world (with the vast expanses of the Pacific Ocean offering the edges of the map). But even then, Pacific Island states can often see their territorial integrities disrupted. Cartographically speaking, it appears that whatever projections and modes of division are chosen, world maps can never please all of the nations all of the time.

Why not subscribe to our blog posts and learn more about our work and collections? Please enter your email address in the right column.

More #LoveMaps Blog Posts

NLW Map Collection

Posted - 09-04-2018 No Comments

Collections / Exhibitions

Jack Lowe and The Lifeboat Station Project

This year is the ‘Year of the Sea’ in Wales, where various individuals and institutions will be celebrating Wales’ epic coastline. Although our coastline is beautiful, it isn’t without its troubles; for nearly 200 years the RNLI lifeboat crews have been busy saving lives at sea, and one man has undertaken an ambitious project that, in his own words, is “about the lifeboat volunteers, for the lifeboat volunteers.”

The Lifeboat Station Project is photographer Jack Lowe’s mission to record all 238 RNLI stations in the UK and Ireland. But he’s not doing it with a compact camera swung over his shoulder, but with a large format Victorian one, with which he creates stunning images on glass in his mobile ambulance – a decommissioned Ambulance named Neena!

A photographic project of this scale hasn’t been attempted before, although the idea itself stems from an earlier tradition of photographing lifeboat crews. It is Jack’s endeavour to tap into the sense of pride of the unique RNLI volunteers – individuals from all walks of life who give up their time to protect the waters of the British Isles. By visiting every RNLI Lifeboat Station in the UK and Ireland, this will result in an unprecedented archive, preserving a vital aspect of the culture of the British Isles for future generations.

Saturday, the very first exhibition of The Lifeboat Station Project prints opened here at the Library, and will be on display throughout the year. Along with twenty unique ambrotype prints of some Welsh RNLI stations and their crews, Jack has also shared a few of the stories behind the pictures, which can be read and heard using the Smartify App

Further Information

Posted - 29-03-2018 No Comments

#LoveMaps / Collections / News and Events

#LoveMaps – Mark Whitehead

Professor Mark Whitehead, Aberystwyth University takes part in our #LoveMaps Campaign.

The ‘last invasion of Britain’ and the and Ordnance Survey

My previous blogs in this LoveMaps Series have focused on the underlying geographical processes that maps can help to reveal, and the ulterior motivations that often inform cartography (maps are never innocent!) . These insights come together in my next choice of map, two Ordnance Survey sheets of Pembrokeshire. I initially chose to look at maps of Pembrokeshire because it is a county that holds special meaning to me. It is the site of my first holiday memories as a child, and the place I now take my own children every summer. When I was presented with these early Ordnance Survey maps of Pembrokeshire I was struck by their sophisticated simplicity. OS maps have the happy knack of being able to convey large amounts of useful cartographic information in an elegant and very readable form. If any maps were going to be “innocent” it was surely these. How wrong I was!

On first inspecting these maps in the National Library of Wales I learned that Pembrokeshire was the first area of the Wales to be mapped by the Ordnance Survey. The reasons for this were twofold. Firstly, from its inception in the 18th century the “Ordnance” Survey was an operation designed to support military operations in Britain. With revolutionary forces at play on the Continent, the Board of Ordnance was tasked with providing maps of England’s southern coast in case of invasion. The original Ordnance Survey was thus a survey focused on where best to locate military ordnance in the form of artillery in order to ward-off foreign invasion. Secondly, Pembrokeshire was the site of the most recent French invasion of Britain. The Battle of Fishguard was a short affair, which occurred on 22-24 February 1797. The French invasion of Pembrokeshire was actually a diversionary operation designed to distract Britain from a parallel invasion of Ireland, it failed spectacularly. Interestingly, it is now commonly referred to as the ‘last invasion of Britain’.

For me, these are two beautiful maps of a place I dearly love. But these are also maps with military purpose that can tell us something of the processes of state building and defence in 18th and 19th century Britain. The concern that these maps clearly show for elevated land, coastal details, and road and river routes were not designed to serve the travelling tourist, but the British military. These reflections may seem interesting (hopefully), but anachronistic: the OS is no longer in the service of the Britain military. This may be the case, but military interests will always shape national cartographic practices. Next time you pick-up an OS sheet, you may want to pay attention to the lack of detail they provide of existing military sites in Britain and what goes on there. Maps that once made things visible for military purposes can also assist in making things invisible when necessary.

Why not subscribe to our blog posts and learn more about our work and collections? Please enter your email address in the right column.

More #LoveMaps Blog Posts

NLW Map Collection

Posted - 26-03-2018 No Comments

Collections / Digitisation / News / Reader Services

Peniarth Manuscripts now available digitally

The National Library of Wales is today launching a number of Peniarth Manuscripts in digital format: they are available here.

What is going on?
To mark the 450th anniversary of Robert Vaughan’s death in 2017, the Library began a piece-meal digitisation of all 560 manuscripts in the Peniarth collection. This is in tribute to the founder of the Hengwrt library, and an acknowledgement of the importance of this, the Library’s ‘foundation collection’.

In what order are your digitising the manuscripts?
To facilitate the work of scanning, the manuscripts are being digitised according to size, beginning with the smallest volumes. They will be scanned and released in batches. The first batch, released today (26 March 2017) include
(1) manuscripts previously captured as ‘treasures’ during the last few years
(2) new appearances by the smallest manuscripts (‘size A’) in the numerical range of 1-70.

Will I see hitherto unseen images, previously hidden on parchment leaves?
No. The manuscripts have been digitised to high resolution, ‘as they are’, without digital manipulation. Therefore, no ‘new’ discoveries have been made. Revealing techniques such as RTI digitisation depend on extra resources, which are unavailable in the Library at present. Readers of Peniarth manuscripts are thus warned that texts MAY be more legible in manipulated microfilm images in the Library Reading Room!

What is the digitisation timescale?
As no extra funding has been obtained for the work, manuscripts will be digitised as-and-when resources allow, i.e. around prioritised project work and funded requests. This means that we cannot give a time-frame for the delivery of the project, or for images of specific manuscripts to appear.

How will I know when a manuscript in which I am interested may become available?
Good question! Follow the order of releases, and a pattern may become apparent. You are also welcome to ‘lodge your interest’ by contacting the Library. We will endeavour to let you know when your manuscript is about to be published. However, you must give us your permission to log your personal data (including email address) when following this route.

Can I ‘jump the queue’, and ask you to digitise a specific manuscript out of sequence?
By all means ask. However, in fairness to other users, we will probably then ask you to pay for the digitisation of that manuscript! Best advice with this project is – ‘be patient, and your manuscript will eventually appear’.

Which manuscripts will you be digitising after the Peniarth collection?
Good news – we are unlikely to run out of manuscripts! The Llanstephan, Cwrtmawr, Bodewryd and other collections await their turns.

What else is happening to the Peniarth Manuscripts?
Many are being catalogued anew by Dr Daniel Huws for his forthcoming Repertory of Welsh Manuscripts and Scribes (due 2019-20). This new resource will make many of our online catalogue descriptions obsolete, and will necessitate a re-consideration of our metadata. In the meantime, our current catalogue descriptions are available here. You are welcome to contact us with new discoveries relating to the manuscripts, if they arise from your own research.

What else is happening with manuscripts at the Library?
Watch out for our Mostyn season in 2018, and for a series of new web-pages on the Library’s medieval manuscripts which will be published during the year. Keep watching our social media platforms for the latest news.

Dr Maredudd ap Huw
Curator of Manuscripts

Posted - 22-03-2018 No Comments

#LoveMaps / Collections / News and Events

#LoveMaps – Professor Mark Whitehead

Professor Mark Whitehead, Aberystwyth University takes part in our #LoveMaps Campaign.

There is no such thing as an innocent map

There is a popular misconception that maps merely reflect the territories that they have been drawn to depict. The idea of the map as a form of innocent representation has, however, long been challenged within more critical cartographic communities. Within human geography there is a popular, if somewhat counterintuitive, aphorism that maps precede territories, not territories maps (Pickles, 2012). I remember when I first read this statement thinking how radical it was. I knew that maps could not represent fully the complex territories they charted: the French philosopher Henri Lefebvre, for example, emphasizes the representational limits of maps when he asks, ‘how many maps, in the descriptive and geographical sense, might be needed to deal exhaustively with a given space, to code and decode all its meanings and contents?’ (1991: 85). While only an infinite number of maps may be able to deal exhaustively with a territory, what if there was more to the representational limits of maps than the practical selection of which features to depict and which to exclude?

Over time I have come to appreciate, and be fascinated by, the political motivations that inform the construction of maps. These motivations are not necessarily about lying through cartography, in the sense of deliberate misrepresentation, they are often more subtle attempts to generate political power and influence. Cadastral maps were among some of the earliest attempts to chart national territories in countries like Sweden. But these maps were not just about descriptions they were a basis for the generation of land taxes to fund early national governments. Global maps projections have long been associated with the projection of political power. Translating a three-dimensional sphere on to two-dimensional paper will always involve aspects of cartographic manipulation. But many global map projections have tended to emphasize the power and influence of colonial powers by maximising their territorial area and minimising those of colonialized states.

It was while looking at different global map projections in the National Library of Wales that I was shown this arresting ‘League of Nations Map of the World’. The League of Nations was established in the aftermath of the First World War, in order to create a diplomatic structure in and through which national territories could be peacefully administered and future conflict avoided. The map contains some interesting features, including: the flags of the League of Nations Member States (note the absence of the US and the USSR); pie charts demonstrating the presence of ethnic minorities in European States; and even a graph indicating the relative height of tariff walls. Perhaps the most intriguing feature of the map are the inserts that reveal the various Mandates through which Britain was tasked with administering territorially contested areas in Africa, the Middle East, and the Pacific.

This ‘League of Nations Map of the World’ interests me because it embodies an overt instance of a map preceding multiple territories. This map is an attempt to cartographically project a vision of an ordered international space, based upon peaceful interstate diplomacy, but which ultimately supports the continuance of the colonial power of European states. This map is also compelling because it marks a failed geopolitical project. The territorial compromises it projected in Europe would ultimately lead to the Second World War, while the territory covered by the Asiatic Mandate in the Middle East continues to be a focus of conflict and violence today. There is nevertheless, something fascinating about a map that can appear so authoritative, complete, and settled, but which we know now would be shattered by the ensuing geopolitical upheavals of the twentieth century.

Why not subscribe to our blog posts and learn more about our work and collections? Please enter your email address in the right column.

More #LoveMaps Blog Posts

NLW Map Collection

← Older Posts



About this blog

A blog about the work and collections of the National Library of Wales.

Due to the more personal nature of blogs it is the Library's policy to publish postings in the original language only. An equal number of blog posts are published in both Welsh and English, but they are not the same postings. For a translation of the blog readers may wish to try facilities such as Google Translate.

About the blog