Blog - Collections

Capturing Contemporary Wales

Collections - Posted 04-04-2022

 

One of the Library’s main aims is to collect all kinds of recorded information about Wales and the people of Wales for the benefit of the public, with a new emphasis on ensuring that our collections represent all aspects of Welsh life and history, especially under-represented individuals and communities. The ‘Collecting’ exhibition gives a taste of our recent acquisitions, including archives and manuscripts, books, maps, photographs and artwork.  

 

 

In terms of archives the material represents a number of themes – literature, wars, sport and entertainment, politics and music,  industry and culture.  It contains material of interest  in the study of women’s history, the history of slavery, the social history of Wales, the history of art, and the history of the entertainment world, dating from 1866 to 2018.  The writers Edward Thomas, David Jones, Menna Elfyn and Eigra Lewis Roberts are among those featured, as are Frederick Douglass, David Lloyd George and Jill Evans from the political world, and Mollie Doreen Phillips, Harry Secombe and Llio Rhydderch from the entertainment industry. 

 

This is what’s on display: 

 

  • The poet Edward Thomas’s exercise book contains drafts of ‘The Mountain Chapel’, December 1914. (NLW MS 24122B). Purchased with financial assistance of the Friends of the National Libraries.
  • An illustrated letter in Welsh which forms part of a collection of letters from David Jones to Valerie ‘Elri’ Wynne-Williams. (NLW MS 24167i-iiiE) Purchased with financial assistance of the Friends of the National Libraries.
  • Notebook of the writer Menna Elfyn dating from 1977 containing early poetic endeavors and drafts of poems. (Menna Elfyn Archive, 1/1/1) Purchase. 
  • Eigra Lewis Roberts’ manuscript draft of the popular television program ‘Minafon’. She wrote about the lives and discontents of Welsh women in post-war Britain, a subject that was not widely addressed by Welsh writers at the time. (NLW MS 23074B) Donation.  
  • Papers of Captain Ted Lees, relating to Island Farm Prisoner of War Camp, Bridgend.  Captain Lees was the camp’s Intelligence Officer and interpreter during the period 1946-1948, when it held some of the most senior German officers, including Feldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt. (NLW MS 24094E) Purchase.  
  • Scrapbook relating to Mollie Doreen Phillips, the Carmarthenshire-based ice skater who competed in the 1932 and 1936 Winter Olympic Games. (NLW ex 3043 (i)) Purchase.  
  • A selection of items from the Harry Secombe archive, including a letter from Prince Charles in 1981, the script for the final ‘Goon Show’ radio programme, broadcast in 1972, and photographs of ‘The Goons’.  (Harry Secombe Archive) Donation (below):

 

 

  • Copy of a petition, presented to the European Parliament on behalf of Residents against Ffos-y-fran in an attempt to stop opencast mining in Merthyr Tydfil.  (Jill Evans MEP Papers, 1 ) Donation.     
  • David Lloyd George’s War Department Pass, Military Identity Card and Westminster Palace Pass from 1940.  (Coalition Liberal Association Papers, 1) Purchase.  
  • Abolition of the Right to Buy and Associated Rights (Wales) Act 2018. The intention was to safeguard Wales’ social housing stock for people who are unable to acquire homes through the housing market. (Acts and measures of the National Assembly for Wales – dccc/anaw/2018/1) Donation.     
  • Papers relating to the 2007 travelling exhibition, ‘Crossing Oceans: Wales, Slavery and Its Music’, the year of Women in Jazz’s 21st anniversary and the bicentennial anniversary of the abolition of the slave trade.   (Jazz Heritage Wales Archive : Women’s Archive of Wales)  Donation.
  • A collection of Welsh music fanzines from the 1980s from Rhys Williams’ collection, including ‘Yn Syth o’r Rhewgell’ fanzine, April 1985.  (Rhys Williams Fanzine Collection) Donation (below):

 

 

  • Manuscript score of ‘Dwy Gwningen Fechan’ by noted harpist Llio Rhydderch, to the words of I. D. Hooson, 1955.  (Llio Rhydderch Papers, 1) Donation.  
  • Autograph album belonging to the journalist John Griffith, compiled during visits to Reconstruction Era America to report for Baner ac Amserau Cymru between 1866 and 1868.  Seen here is the autograph of the famous African-American abolitionist, Frederick Douglass.  After escaping from slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and New York.  (NLW MS 24173B) Purchase.
  • Poster for a gig August 8th 1991 where Welsh bands Tŷ Gwydr, Llwybr Llaethog and Datblygu played.  This poster was donated as part of The Welsh Music Archive’s appeal for Welsh gigs posters #poster2020 . Donation (below):

 

 

Casglu  / Collecting – our exhibition of recent acquisitions is on from 14.02.22 – 03.06.22. Remember to pop in to see it. 

 

 Nia Mai Daniel 

Head of Archives, Manuscripts and Contemporary Records Section, and The Welsh Music Archive Coordinator 

 

This blog is also available in Welsh.

Mollie Phillips, ‘dancer on ice’

Collections - Posted 21-03-2022

In our current exhibition ‘Collecting’ there is a scrapbook on display which belonged to Mollie Doreen Phillips (1907-1994), figure skater and Olympic judge.  It is one of three scrapbooks (NLW ex 3043i-iii) purchased at auction in London by the Library in November 2020.

 

 

 

They comprise press cuttings from newspapers relating to her varied skating career including The Skating Times and European newspapers, letters from the National Skating Association of Great Britain and programmes for skating competitions.  She began competing as a pair with Rodney Murdoch but later chose to compete solo.  Mollie Phillips was the first woman to carry a national flag at the opening ceremony of an Olympic Games at the 1932 Winter Olympics held at Lake Placid and the first woman to judge at the 1948 Winter Olympics held in St. Moritz.  She was also the first woman to be elected to the National Ice Skating Association.

Although Mollie Phillips was born in London she had strong Welsh family connections and lived mainly in Cilyblaidd, a mansion in Pencarreg, near Llanybydder, Carmarthenshire, where she bred dairy cattle.  Her father was George Phillips, founder of the Phillips Rubber shoe-soling company, and chairman of the Carmarthenshire Society (Cymdeithas Shir Gâr Llundain) in 1936.  She was an eminent public figure in her adopted county and was High Sheriff of Carmarthenshire, 1961-62, and Justice of the Peace for many years.  Mollie Phillips also studied law at Lincoln’s Inn.  In 1978 she was awarded an OBE.

In her obituary published in The Independent Dennis Bird wrote: ‘She was a well-liked personality with a vast fund of skating experience and anecdotes. Her smile became a familiar sight on television as she held up her marks at a championship.’

The exhibition runs until 3 June 2022.

 

Ann Evans

Assistant Archivist

 

This blog is also available in Welsh.

International Women’s Day 2022

Collections - Posted 08-03-2022

As part of International Women’s Day 2022 celebrations the National Library is displaying some items from the collections of Menna Elfyn, Jan Morris and Margiad Evans:

• Menna Elfyn is an award-winning poet and playwright who writes with passion of the Welsh language and identity. She is one of Wales’s best known and most translated modern Welsh-language poets.

• Jan Morris (1926-2020) was a Welsh historian, author and travel writer. Published in 1974, Conundrum was her first book under her new name, and one of the first autobiographies to discuss a personal gender reassignment.

• A novelist, essayist, poet and writer of short stories, Margiad Evans (1909-1958), born Peggy Eileen Whistler, was one of the most remarkable women writers of the mid-twentieth century. She is known for her ground-breaking depictions of love, sex, illness and death in the lives and work of women inhabiting harsh and restrictive rural environments.

 

 

Learn more about the collections by searching our catalogue:

Papurau Menna Elfyn

Jan Morris Papers

Margiad Evans Manuscripts

 

Drop in to see the exhibition this month.

 

Nia Mai Daniel

Head of Archives, Manuscripts, and Contemporary Records

 

This blog is also available in Welsh.

Yes or No?

Collections - Posted 28-02-2022

It’s hard to believe that 1997 is 25 years ago, but a chat last year reminded me that it was getting on for a quarter of a century since the Welsh devolution referendum on 18 September 1997, and that the Welsh Political Archive should do something to make this historic event.

A number of ideas were discussed, including holding a travelling exhibition, but in the end we decided that the best thing to do would be to digitise the parts of the Welsh Political Ephemera Collection which focussed on the two referendums held in 1979 and 1997 so that the campaign material would be permanently available all across Wales. Last week we prepared the files for digitisation.

Going through the material brought back a number of memories and seeing the various messages and arguments in favour and against the devolution proposals was really interesting. In 1979, some influential trades unions such as NALGO were urging a No vote – but not because they opposed devolution. They wanted devolution for England at the same time and an independent civil service for Wales. Another No campaign leaflet raised the spectre of violence saying “Bu gan Gogledd Iwerddol Gynulliad ers 1921. A ydych chi am weld hynny yn digwydd yma?” (Northern Ireland had an Assembly since 1921. Do you want to see that happen here?). At the same time leaflets produced by the Communists and Labour urged a Yes vote (although Labour was divided on the issue), while the Liberals resurrected David Lloyd George to play a part in their campaign in favour!

 

 

In 1997, many of the same arguments were seen, but Labour’s campaign, in which Prime Minister Tony Blair played a high profile role, was much more united. The campaign focussed on democracy, the Assembly saving public money and the opposition of the Conservatives. The No campaign went after the costs of devolution and portrayed it as the start of a slippery slope to independence.

 

 

I don’t remember the 1979 referendum – I was more interested in Duplo at the time – but the circumstances and feeling of the 1997 campaign was very different. In 1979, a weak government which was on the verge of losing a General Election called the referendum and the No result was clear. In 1997, with Tony Blair’s government still fresh, very popular in Wales and with a huge majority called the vote.

Even then, the result was very close but the Yes campaign won the day. And the rest, as they say, is history.

Rob Phillips
The Welsh Political Archive

This blog is also available in Welsh.

Conservationists receiving training in Wakefield

Collections / Conservation / Uncategorized - Posted 21-02-2022

Over two weeks in January the Library’s trainee conservators, Rhydian Davies and myself, traveled to Wakefield. While there, we attended a paper conservation module at the West Yorkshire History Centre. We are half way through the training, and here’s a taste of what we learned in the first half of the module.

Repairing wet documents

Wetting paper is a very useful way to relax it and wash dirt inherent in the fibers in preparation for repairing the document. Before washing the document, the surface should be cleaned. If this isn’t done, there is a danger of removing dirt inside the paper fibers. A soft brush is used to clean the dust, and a ventilated latex sponge (smoke sponge, aerated latex sponge) to remove more stubborn dirt. Sometimes a Staedtler eraser is used too.

 

After cleaning the surface, the document is ready to wet. The biggest risk with wetting any document is that the ink runs when it comes into contact with the water. To avoid disaster, we test the ink with a drop of water and alcohol. Shown above is a photograph of Rhydian doing just that.

 

Most manuscripts use “iron gall” ink that is not soluble in water or alcohol. The document has a seal present, which is soluble in alcohol but not in water, so we wetted the document in water only.

 

After washing it in water, we transferred the document to a glass table to start repairing. Due to the fragility of the document it was decided to place Japanese silk paper (2gsm) over the entire back; the tissue paper is so light and thin that it does not hide any words on the document.

 

The photograph above shows myself holding the Japanese tissue paper. The material is easily seen through, and once placed on the document, will be almost invisible!

 

This is the document after receiving the Japanese silk paper over the back. As as you can see from the photograph, it is much more stable. But the tissue paper alone is not strong enough to protect the document from mechanical damage. The document could be easily damaged further.

The next step was to learn to use the leaf casting method. It uses the concept of how paper is created in the first place, using a paper pulp to fill in the missing areas. The document is flooded, and once plugged, gravity pulls the pulp down to the places that need filling.

We don’t have a photograph of the final result, as the first half of the module finished after this step. We start the second half of the module on 7 February, so there will be much more to say after then! But for now, I hope you found this article informative.

 

Julian Evans,

Trainee Conservation Assistant.

New year – new digital resources!

Collections - Posted 14-02-2022

It’s already a month into 2022 and a new year brings with it new digital resources. Our digitisation work has continued behind the scenes and the following items and collections are now available to view from home on the Library’s website and/or the catalogue:

Archives and Manuscripts

Peniarth, Llanstephan, Cwrtmawr and Brogyntyn Collections

Manuscripts

Also, the following manuscripts are now available to view through our viewer:

‘The Chain’ Meteorological registers

Work has begun on digitising a series of meteorological registers of thermometer, barometer and rain gauge readings in ‘The Chain’:

Work to digitise the volumes up to 1945 will also continue in the coming weeks.

Printed Material

Biographies

A further 288 biographies have been made available through the catalogue, including works such as:

Arthurian Collection

We have continued to digitise printed works relating to King Arthur and a further 21 volumes are now available:

Musical Volumes

Two important musical volumes have also been digitized:

Maps and Graphic Material

Portrait Collection

Around 100 portraits have been added to the catalogue, including photographs of J .Herbert Lewis, Clara Butt, Syr Frank Ree, Betty Blythe and Mrs. Lewis, Llanaeron, on her hundredth birthday in 1913!

Dictionary of Welsh Biography

24 new articles have been added to the website:

Don’t forget to follow the Dictionary of Welsh Biography’s Twitter account: @WelshBiography

Morfudd Nia Jones (Digital Content Officer)

Release of the 1921 Census

Collections - Posted

It is an exciting time for family historians with the recent release of the 1921 Census for England and Wales by Findmypast. This is the most detailed census so far and the last one to be released until 2052 due to the 1931 census being lost to fire and no census taken in 1941 due to the Second World War. It gives a snapshot of life at the beginning of the 1920’s soon after the end of the First World War and the Spanish flu pandemic and at the time of miner’s strikes. The threat of strikes led to the Government moving the census from 24 April to 19 June.

With the change of the date to June, this meant that many would not be found at home at the time of the census, but on holiday where they would be enumerated. Some holiday destinations saw an increase in the population compared with the 1911 census. This was the case in Aberystwyth where the population rose from 21,482 in 1911 to 23,508 in 1921. Our very own Librarian, Sir John Ballinger and his wife were on holiday at Llandrindod Wells at the time.

 

© Crown Copyright reproduced by permission of The National Archives, London and Findmypast

 

What information can be found on the form? In order to entice people to give more accurate ages this was asked in years and months for the first time. Those under 15 years were also asked if both parents were alive if not to note whether the father or mother had died or both.

Under ‘Birthplace and Nationality’ parish and county of birth were still asked, but if born outside of the UK to note whether a visitor or resident and which nationality. This is the first time information regarding education was collected, asking whether in full time or part time education.

The information regarding the number of children within a family was collected differently this time, not asking how long the wife had been married, but asking for the number and ages of children and step-children under 15 years, whether residing in the same property or not.

And of course the last column in Wales refers to the language spoken whether Welsh, English or Both. Many households have returned the Welsh language schedules but many of the English versions do list households that spoke both English and Welsh.

Free access to the 1921 census is available within the National Library of Wales building as one of the three designated regional hubs offering free access, otherwise you can pay to access through the Findmypast website. You will need to register for a reader’s ticket to gain access.

Beryl Evans
Research Services Manager

This blog is also available in Welsh.

LGBT+ History Month: A Queer Bawdy Ballad

Collections - Posted 09-02-2022

In my book A History of Women in Men’s Clothes: from cross-dressing to empowerment (Pen and Sword Books, 2021) I outlined how women have defied social dictates for centuries by cross-dressing, cross-working, and cross-living. After delivering a talk on the book, I was contacted by Nia Mai Daniel (Welsh Music Archive, National Library Wales) alerting me to a Welsh language ballad, Can Newydd, about some cross-dressing women. Unable to read Welsh, I asked Mair Jones (Queer Welsh Stories) if she could do a preliminary translation to assess the content and Welsh poet Grug Muse then provided a more contemporary version.

Can Newydd was written by a rather eccentric one-eyed balladeer Abel Jones, (Bardd Crwst) who, according to the Dictionary of Welsh Biography, is ‘the last of the “great” balladists’ and it was set to the tune of Mae Robin yn swil. A song Prof. E Wyn James, Cardiff University points out as ‘more suitable for the tavern than for singing at respectable concerts and eisteddfodau.’ Adding Bardd Crwst’s words made it even more risqué.

Can Newydd

(Domesticated translation, by Grug Muse, with reference to literal translation by Mair Jones)

The tale of two young women from this region who dressed themselves in men’s clothes, and went courting to a country house to seduce two young women, who were strangers to them.

Sung to “Robin is Shy”

Well men of Gwalia/Wales what do you think of this-
See women in clothes, but isn’t it something surprising?
So rare are the tender men in our region/vale
That some women are out of their mind with wanting love.
But isn’t it surprising to see women like this
Knocking at the the maidends of Plas uchaf and Glyn &c

Some light evening in the middle of May,
Went two young women like irreproachable young men
To knock at a Manor house (Plasdy) where there were two young women
Starving for a lover to put on him their love &c  

They beat the glass until the two arose
And soon asked, my dear, O! Who?
Well two wonderful young men- very pretty ones
You will know them the moment the door is opened.

They opened in a minute without any delay
After a few words to bed they went quickly;
Embracing, kissing, a sweet thing is man,
But four young women starving each one
(i.e. in need/wanting (still) each one)

They tired of kissing, nature was strong
and Siani felt something, I won’t name where
She understood this wasn’t a cockerel she had here
Or it was one very strange and odd &c

Lusi and her companion were in a bed nearby
Diligently loving without a single alarm
And she said to her love that the beauty of a son is
to do if he can of her displeasure or pleasure, &c

Lust is a great thing in a rooster or hen,

greater still in a young woman yearning earnestly;
And says an old saying “without a cockerel there’s no chick,”
And strange was the loving between Sian and Cit Puw &c

I pray you young men to come in a hurry,
The women are foolish so much is their lust;
Their troubles worry them, they are gay in lust,
Their passions will be tamed when they have children, &c.

The fashion is starting for the women to come
Pursuing young men, but isn’t it something od?
Isn’t it something surprising to see women like this,
Wearing trousers on them so tight.

Farewell to every bustle and crinoline there was
The women are for trousers to wear instead;
They give some sign in every country and town,
To show the men that they have a plea.

But isn’t it something surprising to see women like this
Knocking at the maidens of Plas uchaf a’r Glyn.

Dating the ballad is difficult as Prof. James explained, the absence of a printer’s name makes it difficult to pin down. However, Prof. James notes the first item on the sheet is a poem about a Baptist minister missing a Dowlais train. As the minister was in Dowlais from 1865-1872, it can be calculated that the leaflet was probably printed during that period. Copies in other collections such as Bangor University and Archifdy Ceredigion Archives shed no further light on the dating.

The content of Can Newydd concerns two women who cross-dress as men to visit a country house and have sex with two women. One reading appears to be a criticism of men who have left these women in want of male attention:

A’i prinion yw’r meibion rhai mwynion ein bro
Nes ydyw rhai merched am gariad o’u co.

(So rare are the tender men in our region/vale
That some women are out of their mind with wanting love.)

However, the ballad also draws attention to the growing number of women who were cross-dressing, something I cover in my book. The mid-late 19th century was a time when women in their thousands were ‘masquerading’ and many of these were individuals whom we would today identify as lesbians or trans.
The ballad is to be performed (perhaps for the first time since the 19th century) at Aberration on the 26th March as part of LGBTQ+ History Month 2022 – so you can judge for yourselves what it’s all about.

Norena Shopland
Draig Enfys
Promoting LGBT+ history and Welsh heritage
Twitter: @NorenaShopland

Abergavenny, intrigue and murder: ‘bad king John’ and the power of the English Crown in Wales

Collections - Posted 31-01-2022

There are many charters in the Library’s collections, but nothing quite like the one we purchased at auction just before Christmas, which will become NLW Deed 1962. On the face of it, it is just another grant of land in the Welsh borders, but it is much more significant than that, both historically and in the context of our collections. It also takes us into the colourful and unsavoury world of medieval politics – a real-life ‘game of thrones’, complete with individuals who have (perhaps unfairly) become synonymous with villainy in the popular imagination.

 

 

On 5 December 1209, while king John was spending a couple of days near the Welsh border at his castle at St Briavels in the Forest of Dean, he had a charter issued confirming the gift of a nearby estate called Dunwallesland by the marcher lord William de Braose to a certain Philip, son of Wastellion. In return, Philip gave his homage and agreed to provide one knight to keep guard at Abergavenny castle. The charter was issued on John’s behalf by Robert de Vieuxpont, who is a plausible prototype for the fictional Sheriff of Nottingham in the Robin Hood stories – he had been John’s sheriff of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and the Royal Forests from 1203 until 1208, and in 1212 he hanged a 6-year old Welsh hostage at Shrewsbury while John had another 28 young Welsh hostages executed at Nottingham. The agreement was witnessed by a number of John’s other advisers and barons, and it was recorded in Latin on a single sheet of vellum by a professional Chancery clerk; experts can identify the individual scribe. The royal seal was attached at the bottom, but has since been lost. John – using his full title ‘by grace of god King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, Count of Anjou‘ – was making a very clear and powerful statement, not only to the recipient of the charter but also to William de Braose and the Welsh population of Gwent.

The name Dunwallesland does not mean much to us now, but it would have meant a lot to the people of Gwent in 1209. It refers to the land of Dyfnwal ap Caradog, the native Welsh ruler of Gwent Uwch Coed in the middle of the twelfth century. His son, Seisyll ap Dyfnwal, killed a member of the De Braose family, and at Christmas 1175 William de Braose took his treacherous and brutal revenge by inviting Seisyll and his eldest son to a feast at Abergavenny castle, massacring them and their followers, hunting down and killing Seisyll’s younger son, annexing the family’s land and destroying their chief residence at Castell Arnallt near Llanofer. Hywel ap Iorwerth of Caerleon retaliated by burning Abergavenny castle in 1182, but Dyfnwal’s family never recovered. In granting ‘Dyfnwal’s land’ to a man who had received it from the very same William de Braose, king John’s charter was explicitly confirming the ruthless dispossession of a Welsh dynasty, and the requirement for the grantee to help defend Abergavenny castle was there for a good practical reason.

 

 

The king was also bringing a marcher lord to heel. By the early 1200s, William de Braose was one of John’s favourites, serving him in France and holding land in Abergavenny, Builth, Radnor, Brecon, Gower, Sussex, Devon, Herefordshire and Limerick, but he suffered a spectacular fall from grace after 1207 and his English and Welsh lands were seized by the Crown. This was ostensibly because of financial debts, but William’s downfall was too quick and complete for that to be the only reason. At Mirebeau in 1202 he had captured John’s nephew and greatest surviving rival for the throne, Arthur of Brittany, and it was while in William’s custody at Rouen that Arthur had mysteriously disappeared in the following year. It is likely that William was involved, or at least knew what had happened, and John himself was widely suspected, not least by William’s wife, Maud, who openly accused the king of murdering Arthur. Whatever the truth was, it seems that John turned on William because of this dirty secret. By the time the 1209 charter was issued, William had fled to Ireland; indeed, the charter throws some rare light on this crucial and poorly documented period in his relationship with John. When John made further moves against him in 1210, William allied with Llywelyn ap Iorwerth of Gwynedd and then fled to France disguised as a beggar. John captured Maud and the eldest De Braose son, also called William, and they were reportedly starved to death at Corfe castle amid rumours of cannibalism. Once again, the deaths were shrouded in mystery which did nothing to help the worsening reputation of a man who would be caricatured after his death as ‘bad king John’. One thing was clear, however: John was stamping his royal authority on the De Braose lordships, including those in the marches of Wales, and this charter is direct evidence of that. John emphasised the point by visiting the forfeited Abergavenny castle in person in 1211, a few months before William de Braose died as an exile in France.

This document also provides a very rare insight into the Crown’s relations with one of the few native Welsh dynasties that had managed to survive the Norman conquest of south Wales, because the witness list includes Cadwallon, one of the sons of Ifor ap Meurig (Ifor Bach) of Senghennydd. Furthermore, the charter belongs to a relatively scantily documented period during the papal Interdict on the kingdom of England.

It is also unique. Thirteenth-century manuscripts of Welsh interest are rare, as are extant charters issued by the king of England in that period, especially ones with a native Welsh ruler in the witness list, so items like this are highly prized by modern archivists and collectors. By 1209, however, it was standard practice for copies of English royal charters to be kept and enrolled by the king’s clerks, so we would expect there to be a copy in The National Archives. But these copies are missing for some of John’s reign, including December 1209. We know that copies were probably made because the missing records belong to three exact regnal years, but they have long since disappeared; Thomas Duffus Hardy noted their absence when he calendared the Patent Rolls and Charter Rolls for the nascent Public Record Office in the 1830s. They could have been mislaid at any time during the political and administrative upheavals of the preceding centuries, possibly even in 1216 when king John’s baggage train – containing administrative records as well as his crown jewels – was famously lost in the Wash in Norfolk.

 

 

This charter’s greatest significance for the Library and for Welsh historiography, however, lies in the fact that it is unparallelled in our collections as an example of the early legal and political developments that eventually led to the situation today where every level of government and law in Wales derives its authority from the English Crown. Both native Welsh rulers and Anglo-Norman marcher lords relied on native Welsh institutions to try to keep the power of the king of England at arm’s length, but ultimately Edward I’s conquest of the principality of Wales and Henry VIII’s Acts of Union meant that they all failed. The headline dates of 1282 and 1536 were catalysts in a very long process during which the power of the Crown in Wales was imposed incrementally, as much by legal instrument as by force or treachery. That is why this charter is important to the Library. Our collections contain no other original charters from the English Crown to any lay person in Wales until 1284, so this document is an earlier, clearer and more direct record of the English Crown’s direct lordship over secular rulers in Wales before 1282 than anything else in the Library.

The fact that it was issued by king John is also significant. The idea that the king of England could dispose of land and claim lordship and overlordship in Wales was not new, and neither was the fact that this was often recorded in writing, but it was only from 1199 onwards – coinciding with the start of John’s reign – that copies were kept routinely and systematically; it is ironic in this case that those copies are now lost. This process of defining and imposing the power of the Crown directly by written legal instruments was a feature of Norman and Angevin rule, and it accelerated in John’s reign, especially after the loss of Normandy in 1204 forced the king to focus his attention more on England and Wales – indeed the tightening of obligations was another reason why John became unpopular, and the severing of cross-channel connections would also encourage English national sentiment in the long term. These developments were crucial in the formalisation and intensification of the Crown’s relations with native Welsh rulers and the marcher lords – the process that led to 1282 and 1536 – and John’s 1209 Abergavenny charter is a fine example of how they occurred in practice.

This recent acquisition fills a very significant gap in the Library’s collections, and it is also a beautiful artefact that opens up a world of medieval intrigue.

Dr David Moore (Archivist)

POSTSCRIPT
William’s grandson, another William de Braose (or Gwilym Brewys), was hanged by Llywelyn ap Iorwerth in 1230 after being caught with the prince’s wife, Joan or Siwan.

Adventures of a Welsh Sailor

Collections - Posted 17-01-2022

In 2019 the National Library of Wales purchased at auction the first manuscript volume of the memoirs of the naval officer Captain William Owen (1732?-1778) of Montgomeryshire, a very early example of a memoir written by a Welshman.

 

Owen is best known for owning and settling Campobello Island, New Brunswick, which he was granted in 1767 (hence his entry in the Dictionary of Canadian Biography). That period of his life was recounted by him in the second volume of his memoirs (now at the National Maritime Museum), parts of which were published in 1942.

Our manuscript, consisting of nearly six hundred pages, concerns the early, and arguably more incident packed, period of his naval career from 1750 to 1761, starting as a midshipman and ending up a lieutenant, serving aboard various ships, including HMS Tyger and the ill-fated HMS Sunderland.

In his first years he sailed the Atlantic and Mediterranean. He endured a fraught voyage to the Caribbean in 1753 during which sickness and appalling weather took the lives of eighty crewmates. From 1754 to 1761 he was in India, where he participated in the battle of Vijaydurg in 1756, Robert Clive’s expedition to retake Calcutta and the battle of Chandernagore, 1756-1757, and the naval battles against the French off Cuddalore, Negapatam and Pondicherry, 1758-1759.

On the night of 6 October 1760, during the blockade of the French port of Pondicherry, he took part in an action to board a French ship but lost his right arm to a cannonball (this accounts for the different handwriting in his contemporary log books and the later memoir!). He narrowly survived, was sent to Madras to recuperate and arrived back at Pondicherry just in time to witness from the shore the cyclone that sank the Sunderland with the loss of almost all hands.

He presents himself as unfailingly heroic and stoic during these events but was not above recounting various scrapes and escapades he found himself in, including various fights and drunkenness, the theft of a bullock at Calcutta and an ill-fated shooting expedition in Ceylon.

While Owen undoubtedly made use of (and freely copied from!) various printed works in compiling the narrative, his main sources were his own meticulous log books, journals, diaries and other papers and manuscripts. These survived his adventures and misadventures and so were available to him as he sat down one day in 1774 at his home in Shrewsbury to begin the memoir.

After his death the papers in due course came to Glansevern, the Montgomeryshire estate of his nephew, and in 1936 they were deposited at the National Library among the Glansevern Estate Records. The memoir itself seem to have remained in the possession of Owen’s direct descendants; it and its source materials are now reunited under the same roof for the first time in more than two centuries, an invaluable resource for researchers.

 

After a few delays (for reasons which surely need no elaboration!) the volume has now been repaired, boxed and fully catalogued as NLW MS 24132E. It is available to be consulted in the Library’s Reading Room.

Rhys Jones
Assistant Manuscript Curator

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