Blog - Collections

The Panorama: or, Traveller’s Instructive Guide through England and Wales

#LoveMaps / Collections - Posted 05-09-2022

Are you already missing the summer holidays? Then let’s go on a tour of Wales with the Traveller’s Instructive Guide through England and Wales as our trusty companion. Dating from around 1820, and measuring only 13 x 9 cm, the Guide intends to provide all the information the inquisitive traveller might need, including market towns and days, fairs, local members of Parliament, banks and bankers, seats of the gentry, distance from London, and mail coach routes and prices. Information on each county is compressed on to a single page, with a coloured map on the facing page. The introduction promises that ‘to all classes of persons, the merchant, the trader, the farmer, but especially the traveller, from its portable size will be found of infinite service’.



Title page


I’ve left the spellings of place names as they appear in the guide. Monmouthshire is missing from the Welsh guide, listed instead with the English counties, which are not included in this volume. This is common in guides and on maps dating from the 16th to the 20th century, and results from long-running legal ambiguity about whether Monmouthshire was part of Wales, with different pieces of legislation treating the county differently. The situation was clarified legally only in the Local Government Act of 1972.


Beginning in Anglesea, we’ll be sure to seek out the ‘many rude vestiges’ of Druidic temples, not to forget the ‘neat and handsome town’ of Beaumaris, and popping to Newborough for ‘ropes and mats made of seaweed’.


Next-door Carnarvonshire ‘contains that stupendous mountain Snowdon, with its summit…lost to human view amidst the clouds of heaven’. Carnarvonshire seems a good place for a snack, as the county produces excellent beef and ‘the cows are remarkable for yielding great quantities of milk’. To ease our aching feet, we’ll make a stop in Carnarvon for the ‘fine salt water baths’. According to the Guide, Bangor is only a single street a mile long, so we’ll proceed swiftly on to Conway, a ‘remarkable pleasant town’, boasting both a Gothic cathedral and an ancient castle ‘in a high state of preservation’. The MP for Caernarvon Boroughs is Sir Charles Paget. He succeeded his brother Edward in the same seat, and never made a single contribution to a parliamentary debate, despite serving for 24 years!





Heading east, the Guide calls central Denbighshire ‘one of the most delightful spots in Europe’ and notes that ‘the vale of Clwyd has been justly made the theme of literary eulogium’. Be sure to pack a notebook so you can jot down any lines of poetry that occur to you while admiring the Denbighshire views.


After the delights of Denbighshire, the Guide seems not to have been impressed by Flintshire. Flint is ‘irregularly built’ and ‘although it sends one member to parliament, has no market’, while St Asaph is ‘a very insignificant place’.


Heading south into Montgomeryshire, we are in the home of ‘luxuriant crops of corn’ and pastures filled with black cattle and horses. If you are in the market for livestock, head to Llanfair and (a very oddly spelt) Llansdiloes for cattle. Or best of all, Welchpool for horses, cattle and hogs.





Hop back north-west into Merionethshire for a ‘picturesque and beautiful romantic appearance’ and a wide array of textiles: excellent flannels from Dolgelly, druggets (a type of coarse fabric that was used to protect carpets in large houses) and ‘coarse woollen cloths’. If you’d like to accessorise, head up to Bala, for gloves and Welch wigs.


Now, onwards to Cardiganshire, which gets a mixed review: ‘the air in some parts is beautifully serene, in other parts it is bleak and piercing’. Be sure to stop by Llampeter, which holds a fair on the first Saturday in August, and Llanbadarnvawr for its ‘fine church, built in the form of a Greek Cross’.





East again to Radnorshire, where the air is ‘highly favourable to health and longevity’, despite the ‘rather indifferent’ soil, and the county town, Radnor, containing ‘nothing worthy of notice’.


All this traipsing may have worn holes in our socks, so it’s time for a trip to Brecknockshire, famous for manufacturing stockings. Builth in particular has a ‘great trade in coarse stockings’. The text and the map disagree on the correct spelling, with the text plumping for ‘Burlth’, while the map shows ‘Bualt’. Neither includes ‘Wells’, which was appended to the name only in the 19th century after chalybeate springs were discovered in the town and began to be marketed to tourists.





Veering back west, we reach Carmarthenshire, ‘situate[d] in the most beautiful part of South Wales’. Carmarthen itself is worth a visit, for its ‘fine bridge’ over the Teifi and its market selling black cattle and horses.


West from Carmarthenshire into Pembrokeshire, for some ‘salubrious’ air, despite the soil in some parts of the county being ‘barren and sterile’. Of course, no visit to Pembrokeshire would be complete without a trip to St David’s, ‘an episcopal city of great antiquity’, with an estimated population of just 200. Unfortunately St David’s offers neither market nor fair. So our souvenir shopping will have to wait until we reach Glamorganshire.





Swansea is ‘a town of great commercial business’ and there are ‘extensive manufactories of copper, brass, &c.’, as well as a fine harbour. At this time, Llandaff and Swansea are the principal towns of Glamorganshire, not Cardiff. In the north of the county, the air is ‘excessive bleak and keen’, but there are also ‘rich mines of lead and coal’.





If you want to send a postcard home, you’re out of luck, as the first picture postcards weren’t produced until the 1870s, but if you’ve sat down to write a letter detailing your adventure (or perhaps to show off your Denbighshire-inspired poem), you’ll find a handy list of postage prices at the back of the volume, and each map highlights the mail coach road in bright red.


Ellie King

Trainee Assistant Map Curator



The Guide In the catalogue

Mills, A. D. “Builth Wells.” In A Dictionary of British Place Names. : Oxford University Press, 2011.

Sir Charles Paget. Hansard 1803-2005.

The Regency Household: protecting carpets. Jane Austen’s World [blog]


This blog is also available in Welsh.

Sir Kenelm Digby’s exotic recipes and miracle cures

Collections / Uncategorized - Posted 22-08-2022

Sir Kenelm Digby (1603-1665) was from a British Catholic family and his father was convicted of treason for being linked to the Gunpowder plot of 1605. He was consequently sentenced to death, and was hung, drawn and quartered in January 1606. This undoubtedly shaped Digby’s life and made him suspicious of authority and willing to take risks. An example of this was when he embarked on a privateering expedition to the Mediterranean with the purpose of attacking and plundering ships that came within sight of his position. After returning from this adventure, his life took another dark turn when his wife, Venetia Stanley, died unexpectedly. He reacted to this event, by immersing himself in scientific and quasi-scientific experiments.



Digby was a polymath, and had a thirst for knowledge that few other people of his time could match. His areas of expertise included philosophy, science, alchemy and cookery. The books featured in this blog encompass his interests in cooking recipes and chemistry. Science at the time was not recorded in any disciplined way, and though Digby was one of the founders of the Royal Society, his research ranged from chemistry and medicine on the one hand, to alchemy and astrology on the other.



There is strong evidence that the Library’s copy of The Great Bible (1539) comes from Sir Kenelm Digby’s library. The Bible is referred to in a number of volumes that were among the manuscripts of William Watkin Edward Wynne of Peniarth. There is evidence that these manuscripts were in Digby’s possession, including Digby’s diary in his own handwriting of his trip to the Mediterranean (see B. Schofield’s article in the National Library of Wales Magazine, Volume 1, Number 2, 1939). The Library recently bought two books of his works.

  • The Closet of the Eminently Learned Sir Kenelm Digbie focuses on the recipes that he had discovered on his travels to Europe. It is a valuable historical document of the food and recipes of the 17th Century. As an extensive traveller, he was able to write about the exotic foods that he encountered and was enthusiastic in writing the recipes in great detail to his friends in Europe. They include how to make cider, metheglin and cherry-wine. It is interesting to note that Digby invented the modern wine bottle by manufacturing it from super strong, coloured glass in around 1633. Before this, wine bottles were thin and weak. This was fine for short term storage, but it meant that the wine would be oxidised much quicker. Therefore, the invention of the wine bottle meant that fine wine, champagne and vintage port could be used and marketed.



  • A Choice Collection of rare Chymical secrets and Experiments in Philosophy by George Hartman. This book outlines Digby’s credentials as a Chemist. It also shows how he believed the products of his experiments could be used as medicines to cure ailments and chronic illnesses such as gout, Dropsie, Palsy, French-Pox, Plague, Leprosie, Small-pox and Measles. The methodology and technique of the experiments are shown through scientific diagrams which were typical of early scientific writings. Though one of Digby’s main aims was to show the power of mechanistic science, much of the book alludes to alchemy and astrology.



The Library has a copy of A Stain in the Blood: The Remarkable Voyage of Sir Kenelm Digby by Joe Moshenska (Heinemann 2016). Moshenska noted that his hero, Sir Kenelm Digby, lived between the Renaissance world of Shakespeare, and the modern world of Milton and Newton. He studies Digby’s adventures, strong character and wide interests – a truly remarkable man.



Schofield, B. (1939). ‘Manuscripts of Sir Kenelm Digby’. National Library of Wales Journal 1 (2), 89-90. Available at:

Moshenska, J. (2016), ‘The adventures of Sir Kenelm Digby: 17th-century pirate, philosopher and foodie’. Available at: (Accessed: 18 August 2022)

Moshenska, J. (2016), A stain in the blood: The remarkable voyage of Sir Kenelm Digby, Portsmouth: Heinemann.

Foster, M. (2009). ‘Digby, Sir Kenelm’. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Available at: (Accessed: 18 August 2022)

Digby, K. (1669) The closet of the eminently learned Sir Kenelme Digbie Kt. opened whereby is discovered several ways for making metheglin, sider, chery-wine, &c. : together with excellent directions for cookery, as also for preserving, conserving, candying, &c., London: Printed for H. Brome, at the Star in Little Britain.

Hartman, G. (1682) A Choice Collection of rare Chymical Secrets and experiments in Philosophy as also rare and unheard-of Medicines, Menmstruums and Alkahests; with the true secret of Volatilizing the fixt salt of Tartar Collected and experimented by the Honourable and truly Learned Sir Kenelm Digby, Kt. Chancellour to Her Majesty the Queen-Mother. Hitherto kept secret since his decease, but now published for the good and benefit of the Publick. London : Printed for the Publisher, and are to be sold by the book-sellers of London, and his own house in Hewes Court in Black-Fryers.


Hywel Lloyd

Assistant Librarian

Rainbow Collections in the Library

Collections / Events - Posted 19-08-2022

August is the month of Pride Cymru and an excellent opportunity to celebrate all things LGBTQ+ in Wales. The Library holds a wealth of collections which reflect the contribution of LGBTQ+ people to Wales. One of the first collections that I catalogued was that of Emlyn Williams, the writer and actor, whose stellar career is documented in eight huge scrapbooks, which are crammed with correspondence from stars in the theatrical and creative spheres. Emlyn Williams wrote about his bisexuality in his two published autobiographies, George (1961) and Emlyn (1973), which provide a context to the archive.

There are many other collections in the Library which record the contribution of LGBTQ+ people and also the impact of movements which have not been widely studied/considered in an LGBTQ+ context.  To celebrate some of these, Mair Jones, writer and researcher from Ceredigion, will be holding two workshops on 25 August  (one in English and one in Welsh) for young people who will be encouraged to explore the themes discussed in the workshops and create new works.



Tickets are available on Ticketsource for the free workshops, which will also include refreshments provided by our fantastic café. We are planning other events for September, which are also funded through the Welsh Government’s Summer of Fun grant scheme. I am also grateful to Josh Littleford @jltoyphotography for creating this amazing Lego library in rainbow colours.

Sally McInnes (she/her), Chair of the NLW Gender and LGBTQ+ Forum

Ceredigion national eisteddfodau past and present

Collections - Posted 01-08-2022



‘Croeso’ sign, Tregaron


The National Eisteddfod has arrived in Ceredigion! Here’s a look at some of the past eisteddfodau held in Ceredigion with some interesting facts about them:


Aberystwyth, 1916

The Eisteddfod was held on the Vicarage Fields near the town.

The subject of the ode was ‘Ystrad Fflur’ [Strata Florida].  John Ellis Williams was the chaired bard and Hedd Wyn came second.

No crown was offered.


Cardigan, 1942

It was intended to hold the Eisteddfod in Carmarthen but due to the War it was held in Cardigan.

No one was worthy of the chair.

Crwys was the Archdruid.

Kate Roberts was the adjudicator of the short story.


Aberystwyth, 1952

The winning ode ‘Hands’ was by John Evans.

No bard was worthy of the crown.  The subject was ‘The creature’ or ‘Any Welsh legend’.  The crown is part of our exhibition ‘A Oes Heddwch: The Eisteddfod Tradition’.

Cynan was the Archdruid.

You can watch a record of this eisteddfod in a silent film which includes some prominent people such as T. H. Parry-Williams and Elfed.



Eisteddfod crown, 1952


Cardigan and district, 1976

This was a very memorable eisteddfod for several reasons – the celebration of the Eisteddfod’s 800th anniversary, the heatwave, the saga of the two ‘Spring’ odes and the great number of people who flocked there and broke a record.

Alan Llwyd won the crown for a sequence of around fifty verses on ‘Life’s Trials’ and the chair for his ode ‘Spring’.

The Royal Mail published commemorative stamps to note the anniversary.




Official programmes for the 1916, 1952 and 1976 eisteddfodau



Lampeter and district, 1984

John Roderick Rees  won the crown for his ode in free metre ‘Eyes’ about the decline of the countryside and a second crown the following year in Rhyl.  He was a Welsh teacher at Tregaron Secondary School and some of the pupils had the privilege of seeing the crown on his visit to the school.

Both chairs were presented to Ceredigion Museum, Aberystwyth, after his death.  They were designed by Kathleen Makinson.

J. Gruffydd (‘Elerydd’) was the Archdruid, one of a number of poets from Ffair Rhos.


Ceredigion, Aberystwyth, 1992

Gelli Angharad [Lovesgrove] near Aberystwyth was the location of the festival.

The present Archdruid Myrddin ap Dafydd was one of the adjudicators for the ode competition.  Idris Reynolds was the chaired bard.

Owen and Prys Edwards donated the crown.

The Archdruid was ‘Ap Llysor’ (W. R. P. George), nephew of Lloyd George.

Robin Llywelyn (Portmeirion), a former student at The Welsh Department, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, was awarded the prose medal for his novel Seren wen ar gefndir gwyn.  The novel was translated by him as White star in 2004.

The Youth Tent was called ‘GigioDigion’.

The children’s pageant was ‘Sethgwenwyn a’r Gwyrddedigion’.

‘Tic Toc’ was the rock opera.

‘The Eisteddfod’s big night’, ‘Llais y lli’, was held with former students Dyfan Roberts, Geraint Lövgreen, Mynediad am ddim and Myrddin ap Dafydd entertaining.

‘The Gorsedd, the Eisteddfod and the Library’ was our exhibition.


Ceredigion, Tregaron, 2022

After a long period of uncertainty the Eisteddfod is back.  Visit us at our stand on the Eisteddfod field to learn more about the history and culture of Tregaron.

I wonder what highlights and interesting stories will be a part of this long awaited eisteddfod?



Tent on the Eisteddfod field, Tregaron



The ‘Gorsedd’ stone circle, Tregaron


Ann Evans

Assistant Archivist


This blog is also available in Welsh.


Archiving ‘Sustainable Development and Wales’ websites

Collections - Posted 15-07-2022

Since the advent of Devolution in 1997, Sustainable Development has played a central and increasing role in the way Wales is governed and, as a result, the way that we live. In recognizing this importance, we have been archiving websites on Sustainable Development and the Environment since 2004. The collection now exceeds 700 websites and our next step will be making this valuable collection of websites accessible by creating a special collection on this most important field within the UK Web Archive



A complex blend of determinants contribute to the principle of Sustainable Development across Wales. For instance, our web archiving, and therefore the Collection, will focus on Conservation and protection and the work done conserving Wales’s ecosystems; Natural Resources and Energy and the focus on Renewable energy and Energy efficiency; Environmental protection and the work done on Waste management, Recycling, and Active travel. We will also cover ‘Environmentalism’, ‘Global Citizenship’ and ‘Climate change’ and list the plethora of websites showcasing Wales becoming a far more global responsible nation.

Wales became one of the first nations to have a constitutional duty on sustainable development. The websites that we archive show progress made in the deployment of renewable energy; energy efficiency; reducing fuel poverty; and transforming Wales into one of the top three recycling nations in the world. However, many websites from our past are no longer viewable on the live web but are accessible within the UK Web Archive. Our work also involves capturing current websites addressing Sustainable Development therefore ensuring this work is also captured for future generations.

As Wales is at the global forefront on legislation on sustainable development, we have many firsts. We became the World’s first Fair Trade Nation in 2008; we were the first Parliament in the world to declare a climate emergency in 2019. On top of that, a significant milestone was the passing of the Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015 resulting in the Commissioner for Future Generations, a world’s first with statutory powers.

There is still much more to do to create a better future for our planet and far too much to list in a blog! However, a future ‘Greener Wales’ will see further cuts in carbon emissions; more active travel; ban on single use plastics; addressing diversity loss by creating a national forest; investing in the circular economy; establish world-leading renewable industries such as developing the marine energy sector in Wales. There’s also the legacy of Wales’ past; our disused coal tips will be made safer and our Agriculture sector will be supported to become more environmentally friendly.

It is a journey that we can be proud of and the landscape has been fast changing. Thankfully, our web archiving ensures this all-important journey and its ambitious programme is being documented and made accessible.

We are also reaching out. We will be seeking permission from website publishers to make their content more widely available. The UK Legal Deposit Libraries have been archiving UK websites with the caveat that this material is only available to view on Library premises. We will also contact interested parties to help us select websites for preservation to add to our expanded list of resources being preserved for the nation. You are most welcome to do this through the ‘Nominate a website’ page.

The ‘beta’ collection we are building is viewable from here. An additional blog will appear showcasing the progress we have made with the collection! In the meantime, here is a snapshot of ‘Recycle for Wales’, one of the first websites archived back in 2006!




Aled Betts,

Acquisitions Librarian and Web Archivist

Daniel Huws’ Remarkable Repertory

Collections - Posted 04-07-2022


The 20-22 June 2022 saw the official launch of a remarkable volume – Daniel Huws’ ‘A Repertory of Welsh Manuscripts and Scribes c.800-c.1800’. As the most comprehensive and significant study of Welsh manuscripts for over a century, the volume was celebrated with a three day conference held at The National Library of Wales, ‘Welsh Manuscripts c.800-c.1800’.

Daniel Huws came to work at NLW in 1961 as an archivist and developed a keen interest in medieval manuscripts and scribes. He retired in 1992 and began working on the Repertory in 1996, with the project supported by The National Library of Wales and the Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies. Now, as Daniel celebrates his 90th birthday, the magnum opus has finally been published. Along the way the work saw the input of several Welsh manuscript experts and scholars, including NLW’s Curator of Manuscripts, Dr Maredudd ap Huw, and Professor Ann Parry Owen of the Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies; but not least Gruffudd Antur, who contributed significantly to the volume.



L-R Maredudd ap Huw; Ann Parry Owen; Gruffudd Antur


During the opening ceremony, which saw a copy of the Repertory presented to First Minister Mark Drakeford, Daniel mentioned that Gruffudd’s input had proved invaluable to the point where he had become Daniel’s apprentice and co-author, even pointing out that Gruffudd’s nickname is now ‘Daniel bach’! Speeches acknowledging Daniel and Gruffudd’s amazing achievement were also given by NLW’s Chief Executive and Librarian, Pedr ap Llwyd; Elin Haf Gruffudd Jones, Director of the Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies; and the Library’s President, Ashok Ahir.



A copy of the Repertory being presented to First Minister Mark Drakeford


The Repertory will no doubt prove invaluable to the study of Welsh manuscripts and manuscripts connected to Wales, and their provenance, history, construction, and contents. Daniel has estimated that the volume includes the details of 3,000-4,000 manuscripts, many of which were of course featured and discussed throughout the three day conference. Papers encouraged a wide variety of discussion, with topics ranging from palaeography and codicology to linguistics and digitisation; and featuring medieval Welsh law, chronicles, poetry, miscellanies, genealogies, grammars, charms, psalters, chronologies, letters, and lists of place-names. Our three plenary speakers gave thought-provoking and interesting lectures, with Ceridwen Lloyd-Morgan on medieval religious images; Bernard Meehan on the medieval Irish psalter; and Paul Russell on the works of Gerald of Wales.



Ceridwen Lloyd-Morgan (pictured with Maredudd ap Huw) speaking on ‘Religious Images in Medieval Welsh Manuscripts’




Bernard Meehan, speaking on ‘Revealing the Psalter in Early Medieval Ireland’




Paul Russell giving the final lecture of the conference,  ‘In the Penumbra of the Repertory: Medieval Manuscripts from Wales’


The conference closed with a presentation of the Cymmrodorion Medal to Daniel Huws, a high honour so well deserved.



The Cymmrodorion medal ceremony


The Repertory has opened up the field of Welsh manuscript studies like never before, providing an unprecedented source for researchers. In the words of our final plenary speaker Paul Russell: the Repertory is not the end, it is just the beginning!



Daniel Huws and his Repertory


Lucie Hobson

Assistant Archivist


This blog is also available in Welsh.

James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, William Williams, Pantycelyn and the Depiction of Slavery

Collections / Research - Posted 20-06-2022

Amongst the many printed works associated with William Williams Pantycelyn held by the National Library is a 1779 Welsh translation of A Narrative of the Most Remarkable Particulars in the Life of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, an African Prince, as related by Himself originally published in English under the auspices of Selina Hastings, Lady Huntingdon in 1772. Gronniosaw’s Narrative is an important work, especially in terms of the development of early black biography. It was the first autobiography by a black author published in Britain and one of the earliest known examples of a slave narrative.

At first glance, that it was Williams Pantycelyn that was responsible for the translation and publication of Berr Hanes o’r Pethau Mwyfa Hynod ym Mywyd James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw makes sense. Williams Pantycelyn after all was responsible for the first printed condemnation of the slave trade in Welsh in the first volume of his Pantheologia, published in 1762. However, as a number of academics, most notably the African American literary critic Henry Louis Gates Jr., have noted there is no condemnation of slavery in Gronniosaw’s text, unlike later 19th century slave narratives. Indeed, according to Gates Jr.’s reading of the text one of the key threads throughout is Gronniosaw’s abandonment of his African heritage and his blackness as he seeks to become more European in order to gain acceptance in 18th century Anglo-American society.



Other readings argue that the text presents slavery in a generally positive, paternalistic light playing down its brutal reality. Gronniosaw’s initial enslavement is portrayed as saving him from being murdered; the horrors of the Middle Passage are absent, with only a reference to a mild bout of sea-sickness; it is through slavery that Gronniosaw is brought to a Christian country from a ‘pagan’ Africa; it is through slavery, and specifically through his final ‘dear kind master’ that Gronniosaw is converted to Calvinism. There is no explicit condemnation of the slavery as an institution, no meditation on the condition of being in bondage or on the morality of slaveholding. Indeed, the text can also be seen as making an implicit case for slavery as a path to conversion, an argument made by its editor Walter Shirley, Lady Huntingdon’s cousin, in the Narrative’s preface.

How then do we reconcile Williams Pantycelyn’s avowedly anti-slavery principles with the publication of a text which at best was ambivalent in its attitude to slavery? The same can, of course, be asked with regards to Gronniosaw, as a former slave responsible for the authorship the text. Recent academic work by the academic Ryan Hanley, focused on the religious, social and cultural milieu behind the original publication of the Narrative, may shed some light on these contradictions. As Hanley has argued the depiction of slavery in the Narrative was profoundly influenced by Gronniosaw’s relationship to evangelical Calvinism and its social networks. Hanley identifies a number of key factors that help explain the way slavery is depicted in the Narrative.

First, while the text is commonly read as a slave narrative today, on publication the Narrative’s function was primarily as a piece of devotional literature, forming part of a sharp, and by now obscure, theological debate on predestination and slavery conducted by pamphlet between the Calvinists and the John Wesley’s Arminian Methodists. The central focus of the Narrative is on Gronniosaw’s path to Calvinism, his conversion, his engagement with Calvinist circles and the comfort provided by his religious faith during his extremely challenging circumstances post-slavery. The Calvinist belief that a person’s fate in the afterlife was pre-ordained meant that their freedom in the physical world was of little importance in terms of their eventual salvation, which had significant implications for their views on slavery at this time. For proslavery Calvinists such as George Whitfield and Lady Huntingdon, as long as the gospel was being preached to their slaves they saw no obstacle to owning slaves, their spiritual wellbeing being of more importance than their physical freedom.

Second, there are issues related to Gronniosaw’s authorial agency, especially in relation to the texts’ muted depiction of slavery. A number of actors stood between Gronniosaw, the narrator, and the published text: an amanuensis, an editor and perhaps most significantly a patron, the slave owning Lady Huntingdon. An alternative reading by Jennifer Harris, however, makes the case for a higher degree of authorial agency, with Gronniosaw omitting key facts, such as his probable Islamic background in contrast to the depiction of a ‘pagan’ Africa, as a means of playing on European sympathies and prejudices.

Third, many of the people in this Calvinist social network, on whom Gronniosaw was, crucially, financially dependent upon at different times, were involved in the slave trade, including key figures such as George Whitfield and Lady Huntingdon. Indeed, Lady Huntingdon, the patron of Trefeca College, is key here with all the actors involved in the Narrative’s production, as Hanley points out, doing their upmost to please her. Williams Pantycelyn was also well acquainted with Lady Huntingdon, writing many of his English hymns at her behest and in relation to her influential role as the benefactor of Trefeca College

The religious, social and cultural environment in which Gronniosaw’s Narrative was produced provides important context in relation to its depiction of slavery. The primacy given to theological concerns and the role of Lady Huntingdon also provides similar context for Williams Pantycelyn’s role in the translation and publication of the Berr Hanes. However, questions remain in reconciling its muted depiction of slavery and Williams’ opposition to the slave trade and how these relate to the proslavery views of many in that periods Calvinist social network.


Dr. Douglas Jones

Printed Collections Projects Manager


Further reading


Evans, Chris – Slave Wales: the Welsh and American Slavery, 2010.

Gates Jr., Henry Louis – The Signifying Monkey, 2011.

Gronniosaw, James Albert Ukawsaw – Berr hanes o’r pethau mwyaf hynod ym mywyd James Albert Ukawsaw Groniosaw, tywysog o Affrica: fel yr adroddwyd ganddo ef ei hun, 1779.

Hanley, Ryan – ‘Calvinism, Proslavery and James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw’, Slavery and Abolition 35 (2), 2015.

Hanley, Ryan – Beyond Slavery and Abolition: Black British writing, c.1770-1830, 2018.

Harris, Jennifer – ‘Seeing the Light: Re-reading James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, English Language Notes 42 (4), 2005.

James, E. Wyn – ‘Blessed Jubil!: Slavery Mission and the Millennial Dawn in the work of William Williams Pantycelyn’ in Cultures of Radicalism in Britain and Ireland, 2013.

James, E. Wyn – ‘Welsh Ballads and American Slavery’, Welsh Journal of Religious History 2, 2007.

James, E. Wyn – ‘Caethwasanaeth a’r Beirdd’, Taliesin 119, 2003.

Potkay, Adam and Sandra Burr – Black Atlantic Writers of the 18th Century: Living the New Exodus in England and the Americas, 1995.

Schlenther, Boyd Stanley – Queen of the Methodists: The Countess of Huntingdon and the Eighteenth-century Crisis of Faith and Society, 1997.

Tyson, John R. – ‘Lady Huntingdon, Religion and Race’, Methodist History 50 (1), 2011.

Welch, Edwin – Spiritual Pilgrim: A Reassessment of the Life of the Countess of Huntingdon, 1995.

Teddy Bears and Personal Digital Archiving

Collections - Posted 09-06-2022

As those who know me well will tell you, I am an arctophile. I have been collecting teddy bears for more than 30 years and, some time ago, realised that I needed to catalogue my collection if I was to remember key details about individual bears. In 2001, I acquired a Palm Personal Digital Assistant to record provenance information relating to my growing collection. I noted the names of the bears, manufacturer or artist, place of acquisition, price and personal notes, such as memories associated with their acquisition. I used this PDA for a few years and then had a lull in collecting, so did not access it for a while. A few years ago, I tried to add some information, but the PDA would not turn on. I did some research and discovered that it was known to have a problem with its battery and backing up data. I also found out that even if I could have turned it on, the data was held in a proprietary Palm software format and it would have been far beyond my skills to extract the data and save in a different format. Fortunately, although I could not access the digital record I had kept some information on paper, but several of the original names of my bears were lost forever!

We are all now using digital means to connect, record and share data, both personal and professional. However, the risks of losing data are considerable unless steps are taken to ensure access in the present and the future. Things I wish I had done when I created the records for the bears include naming the files consistently, checking that I could open the PDA and read the information every year or so, or that I had used a system which did not rely on a proprietary software, so that I could copy the data to several places for security. With digital content, such as emails, photographs, videos, there is often no paper alternative and access to the personal digital archive of the future is dependent on preservation planning in the present. The Library has published guidelines to assist with preservation planning and please feel to contact the digital archives team, if you want any additional information at

Sally McInnes, Head of Unique and Contemporary Collection

100 Years of 9.5mm Film

Collections / Screen and Sound - Posted 08-06-2022

The small gauge film format 9.5mm is not as well known today as other popular formats such as 16mm, standard 8mm and super 8mm. However, this may change now that it has reached its centenary and become the subject of a number of events which have been created to celebrate its history and impact on film culture.



Pathé 9.5mm film projectors in the apparatus collection of NLW Screen and Sound Archive


It was December 1922 when the French Pathé company launched its new 9.5mm format. It was a radical miniaturisation of both film exhibiting and film making technology which enabled significant reductions in costs. This in turn had the effect of making home cinema and home cinematography accessible to a much wider global public. The initial offering was of a movie projector – The Pathé Baby – which the company supported with a supply of films from its extensive back catalogue. Diverse short subjects and even edited down feature films all originally made on 35mm standard gauge were available for purchase or hire, printed down to 9.5mm. In many ways it was the VHS or Netflix of its day, the means for a re-dimensioned experience of cinema in the home. One year later Pathé added a camera to its new system which by then had a new competitor in the shape of 16mm film, backed by the American companies Kodak and Bell and Howell.



A camera magazine or ‘charger’ of 9.5mm film, showing its distinctive central perforation


The existence of these relatively affordable complete tools for small gauge filmmaking had the effect of making widespread amateur film culture possible. Although various now obscure formats had existed for well-heeled amateurs from the beginnings of cinematography in the late Victorian era, their use had never become a mass market phenomenon. Within a few years Pathé had sold 100,000 of its Baby projectors. The home movie making genie was finally out of the bottle!



An undated sales leaflet for the Pathé Baby projector


It is no coincidence that the moving image snapshots of everyday life which institutions like the National Library of Wales Screen and Sound Archive hold in their collections begin in the 1920s and are well represented from the 1930s onwards. Movie making became a popular pastime and was further democratised by the establishment of cine clubs in which members would share the costs and collaborate on story films and documentaries.

From 2013 to 2017 many such films in the UK’s national and regional film archives were digitised and contextualised as a part of the Unlocking Film Heritage project. NLW’s Screen and Sound Archive was a partner of the BFI run project and 57 of its 9.5mm home movies were scanned and made freely and indefinitely available on the BFI player. Representative examples include:

Early film making at Welsh camp (1929)

This film skilfully applies techniques of narrative film making to the activities of a camping holiday, making a very lively and watchable film.

Wrexham Local Events

A newsreel style account of local life, including the demolition of a chimney.



A frame from the film Wrexham Local Events showing the shadowy presence of the anonymous pipe-smoking filmmaker, complete with camera and tripod


Holidays, Jolly Days and Happy Ways

Not just a record of a summer holiday but a gently satirical look at the British at leisure. One of a number of 9.5mm films by the talented amateur Harold Cox.

Motorcycles at Cradoc and Two White Rabbits

These are clips from films made by Jack Clark of Brecon. The Clark family were multi-generational residents of Brecon and still operate a family business to this day. Jack Clark owned and ran a Photographic supplies shop and studio which may have helped with supplies of film stock and developing chemicals. Some of his films can also currently be seen in the Brecknock Museum exhibition. For the centenary of 9.5mm we are making available a further clip from the Clark collection which shows areas of the town close to the river – Llanfaes Bridge and around the Cathedral – flooded in the 1930s.

In this case, we present an overscan of the material so that the characteristic features of 9.5mm can be seen. These include the central perforation and the notch cut into the side of the film at the point of an intertitle which triggers a still frame mechanism in the projector. The often associated melted frame is also visible, as is damage to the image from the action of the projector claw. Aside from the historical value of images of the flooding, something made newly relevant by our current concerns about climate change, this clip is an interesting example of the ‘remixing’ potential of 9.5mm in which Clark as a home movie maker has edited commercial footage together with material which he has shot himself. We cannot be sure how intentional this action was but it is suggestive that the scenes of flooding have been connected to the cartoon images of taking ‘an unexpected bath’.



Scanning 9.5mm film on the MWA Flashscan at NLW Screen and Sound Archive


In 1932, a new even more economical format, 8mm, joined the now buoyant market for home movie making. Despite this increased competition, 9.5mm continued to thrive as both a medium for making and showing films. Pathé’s catalogue of film titles continued to expand and new hardware catered for the development of 9.5mm sound film which meant contemporary releases could be heard as well as seen.

The gauge had a devoted following who appreciated it being less costly than 16mm but having a comparable picture quality, certainly far superior to 8mm. When, in 1960, Pathéscope UK went into receivership, it might have been the end of the format but these devotees banded together to form a new cine club which successfully recreated support structures for the gauge. Members of Group 9.5 continued to collect and show the prints produced by Pathé and some of them – and similar groups in other countries – also kept production of 9.5mm home movies going, in some rare cases even experimenting with new cinematographic techniques such as the use of anamorphic lenses for a widescreen image.



On the left, a section of the 9.5mm film strip of a film by Group 9.5 member, Hugh Hale. On the right, the expanded widescreen image as seen when projected using a 1.5x anamorphic lens


Now operating in the age of super 8, which was introduced in 1965, these latter day nine fivers were ploughing an idiosyncratic furrow and with more limited exposure the gauge gradually slipped out of the public consciousness, becoming, in the phrase reported by Lenny Lipton, ‘a living corpse’. It is perhaps kinder to say that, as a practical filmmaking medium and as a means of dissemination of theatrical film content, it is now something of an archaeological curiosity, but one which can nevertheless give valuable insights into the vastly different practices of media consumption experienced by earlier generations. What’s more, as the carrier of a hundred years’ worth of global memory, it is our hope that, through the preservations carried out by the library and other archives, this storied centenarian will live forever.


Dr. Guy Edmonds

Technical Assistant (Film)


9.5mm Centenary Events

The University of Southampton conference dedicated to 9.5mm, The Little Apparatus

The symposium, 9.5mm: And Cinema is Everywhere , at Lichtspiel, Bern, Switzerland

The conference, Pathé-Baby to 9.5mm: The Invention of Home Cinema, Fondation Jérôme Seydoux-Pathé


References and further reading

H. Abbott, The Complete 9.5-mm. Cinematographer. Amateur photographer & cinematographer, Iliffe & Sons, Limited, 1937.

B. Coe, The History of Movie Photography. London: Ash & Grant, 1981.

L. Lipton, Independent Filmmaking. London, Studio Vista, 1974.

G. McKee, The Home Cinema: Classic Home Movie Projectors 1922-1940, Gerrards Cross, 1989

G. Newnham, 9.5mm web pages


This blog is also available in Welsh.


Jubilees in Wales

Collections / Uncategorized - Posted 30-05-2022

As the United Kingdom celebrates the Queen’s Platinum Jubilee, it’s an opportunity to see how similar occasions have been marked in Wales in the past.

A number of monuments were built throughout Britain to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of George III in 1809, including the Arch near Devil’s Bridge, Ceredigion, which was built for Thomas Johnes, book collector and owner of the Hafod Press. A Jubilee Tower was built on the summit of Moel Famau, Flintshire, which is described in A history of the Jubilee Tower on Moel Fammau in North Wales by R.J. Edwards.  Both these monuments still stand today.  The Church of England (which included churches in Wales at that time) published special forms of prayer, in Welsh and English, to give thanks for half a century of the King’s reign.



Similar forms of prayer were published in 1887 for the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria, and a thanksgiving service was held in St. Peter’s Church, Carmarthen, with a sermon by the Bishop of St. David’s.  A decade later, Victoria celebrated her Diamond Jubilee.  One of the books published to mark the occasion was The Queen’s Diamond Jubilee: illustrated record of Her Majesty’s reign and descriptive sketch of Aberdare, 1837-1897.



The collection given to the National Library by Miss Margaret Davies of Gregynog, near Newtown, includes a unique record of the Silver Jubilee of George V in 1935.  A book was given to Miss Davies and her sister Gwendoline by members of the Montgomery County choirs who sang in the presence of the King and Queen in the Royal Albert Hall, to thank the sisters for their support.  The book is signed by members of the choirs and beautifully bound.



The next Silver Jubilee was that of the present Queen.  I remember as a child standing at the side of the road when she and the Duke of Edinburgh were returning from a thanksgiving service in Llandaff Cathedral in 1977.  An attractive bilingual booklet was printed containing the order of service.  A quarter of century later the Queen celebrated her Golden Jubilee, and amongst the year’s events she and the Duke of Edinburgh visited the Festival of Youth in Eirias Park, Colwyn Bay.  A bilingual booklet was published to celebrate the visit.



I wonder what historical records will be added to our collections after this year’s celebrations?


Timothy Cutts

Rare Books Librarian

← Older Posts Newer Posts →




About this blog

A blog about the work and collections of the National Library of Wales.

Due to the more personal nature of blogs it is the Library's policy to publish postings in the original language only. An equal number of blog posts are published in both Welsh and English, but they are not the same postings. For a translation of the blog readers may wish to try facilities such as Google Translate.

About the blog