It was with regret that the committee organising the National Eisteddfod for 2021 had to make the decision to postpone the competition for a second year due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The full title of the sound clip highlighted in this blog is “Why Should We Not Sing in War?”
We are currently waging war with the virus through vaccines, social distancing, and lockdowns; there have been many casualties of this war and the Eisteddfod is one of many organisations to have been affected by it adversely as well.
The festival, with a history tracing back to 1176, is a celebration of Welsh language and culture, which has been held during the first week of August since 1861, apart from 1914, when the outbreak of World War 1 caused it to be postponed for a year.
In 1916, the new Secretary of State for the War, David Lloyd George made an impassioned reply to a letter published in the Times, criticising the decision to hold the Eisteddfod during wartime. He made his speech at the opening of the Aberystwyth National Eisteddfod that August, and even though the festival cannot take place this year, we can take his words as a reminder that while adversity strikes again, as it has done many times over the course of Welsh history, its people will carry on singing.
Although the speech was made in 1916, the sound file held by the National Library of Wales was made in the BBC studios on 15 February 1934, when Lloyd George was President of the London Welsh Trust. It was digitised by the Unlocking our Sound Heritage (UOSH) project.
By this point in his life, Lloyd George had been marginalised from British Politics, but his original oration was given just months before he was invited to form a government in December 1916, holding office until 1922, as the first and only Welshman to become Prime Minister of Great Britain.
Lloyd George was born in Manchester but was raised at his mother’s family home in Llanystumdwy, near Cricieth. He maintained lifelong ties to this area, being made Earl of Dwyfor in 1944, the year before his death at age 82. He is buried on the banks of Afon Dwyfor in Llanystumdwy.
He was a passionate advocate for Welsh politics and rights, and an eloquent speaker, which is obvious through this sound file. Beginning with the hiss and crackle of the 78rpm recording, Lloyd George leads with a question to his critics: “Why should we not sing during the war… why especially should we not sing at this stage of the war?” He explains that Britain is greater than ever, so although war means suffering and sorrow, the country should be like the nightingale, giving its song in the darkness and so triumphing over pain.
This reference to Hans Christian Andersen’s fable of the Chinese emperor and a nightingale whose song so moves Death that the emperor’s life is spared, was (as a musical side note) the subject of a 1914 opera by Igor Stravinsky, “La Rossignol”. Perhaps Lloyd George was familiar with the opera or perhaps he had liked reading fairy tales to his children, but in his estimation, although nightingales are not known on the Welsh side of the Severn, “…we can provide better. There is a bird in our villages that can beat the best of them. He’s called Y Cymro.”
Like the nightingale that sings in the night, the Welsh sing in the night and during the day, in joy and sorrow, at work and at play, in prosperity and through adversity, in sunshine and storm, during times of peace – and so why should they not sing during the war?
A transcription of the audio file can be found at the end of the blog.
Lloyd George continues, referencing the turbulent history of Wales and its ability to maintain cultural identity throughout: “Hundreds of wars have swept over these hills, but the heart of Wales has never been silenced by one of them.”
In this day and age, the Eisteddfod cannot be completely silenced, even by a virus. Modern technology allows for the Eisteddfod AmGen to take place on various online platforms and social media with a strong competitive element. This freedom is like the end of the legend of the nightingale, in which a strong future is negotiated to ensure that the bird lives in its true environment so that it can continue to thrive and be heard.
At the heart of Lloyd George’s speech is a surety that we will make it through this present adversity and together we can stay in tune.
By Rasma Bertz, Unlocking Our Sound Heritage Volunteer
Transcription: Why should we not sing?
He sings in joy he sings also in sorrow.
He sings in prosperity he sings also in adversity.
He sings at play he sings also at work.
He sings in the sunshine he sings in the storm.
He sings in the day time he sings also in the night.
He sings in peace; why should he not sing in war?
In collaboration with the National Library of Wales and British Library’s Unlocking Our Sound Heritage Project, our group, postgraduate students studying for an MA in Archives and Records Management at Aberystwyth University, have been cataloguing a collection of digitised oral history recordings from Butetown, Wales. The recordings were created during the 1980s by an academic who was researching Butetown, also known as Tiger Bay, and was interviewing residents about their memories of the twentieth century. Butetown was one of the first multi-cultural societies in Britain and its docklands were a major distributor of coal and other goods during the nineteenth and twentieth century and as such, residents had unique perspectives.
In later years further interviews and discussions took place with aims of preserving the history of Butetown, as the area was going through a series of redevelopments and, consequently, many people had moved away, and some residents were elderly or deceased. One section of the collection contains recordings of the Women’s Lives Course, a year-long event that took place in Butetown during the late 1980s that was attended by residents, former residents, and people from surrounding areas. The course held weekly meetings, during which discussions took place focusing on a different topic that impacted the lives of women in Butetown including education, religion, marriage, employment, racism, and family dynamics. During the course participants were taught valuable skills such as how to devise interview questions, the best equipment to use for oral history interviews and technical skills, such as how to use microphones and tape recorders.
The recordings are very interesting, they contain excerpts from previous interviews and the discussions centre around the life of the individual in the original recording who, at times, attended the discussion as well as about similar and different experiences attendees had. Some attendees’ parents emigrated to Wales during the twentieth century, or they themselves emigrated to Wales and as a result, they recount stories about growing up in multi-cultural families, the different cuisines people ate and living in different countries, among others. The recordings further contain larger discussions about British culture and society, community identity, and emigration as well as about Butetown and its redevelopment.
The recordings from the Women’s Lives Course, consequently, provide invaluable insights into women’s lives in twentieth century Butetown, the experiences of diverse communities within Wales, how society was changing as it was approaching the twenty-first century and how community groups sought to preserve their memories.
Cataloguing oral history interviews can be a lengthy process which requires great attention to detail. When our group was introduced to the recordings, we were presented with an initial spreadsheet containing the titles of the recordings and general descriptions of their contents. Prior to listening to the recordings, we familiarised ourselves with the spreadsheet and carried out research into why the recordings were created. Afterwards we began planning how we would approach the recordings, we divided them between ourselves and began listening to them.
Listening to recordings for cataloguing purposes is unlike listening to music or a podcast. Cataloguers listen to determine the main topics discussed, to identify topics which users will be interested in and any material which should not be published. During interviews people, at times, will say things in confidence which they do not wish to be published or which may be about a sensitive issue. This material, thereby, may be removed from the recording or the recording may be classified as inappropriate for online publication and will only be accessible in-person. After we have listened to the recordings, our team writes descriptions, summaries, and other fields about what we have heard. Descriptions and summaries are not transcriptions, they are concise and yet detailed accounts of what is contained in the material so that users can decide if they want to listen to the recordings. This information may be inputted into archive and library software or another computer programme such as Microsoft Excel.
Rights holders research also must be carried out. All contributors, interviewers, interviewees, and people involved in the recordings such as sound engineers, hold copyright rights over the material and thus, they must be contacted, and their permission must be attained prior to the recordings being published online. If this permission cannot be attained or if the material contains topics which are extremely sensitive, they will be accessible only in-person.
After the recordings have been catalogued and the rights research undertaken, this information is imported into the National Library of Wales and the British Library’s catalogues. Some of the recordings within the ‘Tiger Bay– Heritage and Cultural Exchange’ collection such as the Women’s Lives Course recordings, contain sensitive material. Consequently, some recordings may be accessible only in person at the National Library of Wales in Aberystwyth. Although some recordings will not be accessible online, the collection is intriguing, and the recordings are worthwhile listening to in person.
By Evangeline Mills, MA Archives and Records Management Student, Aberystwyth University
Every year, postgraduate students studying Archive and Records Management at Aberystwyth University undertake a project which provides them with the opportunity to use some of the skills they have been developing. This year has been no different, although the widespread effects of the global pandemic have inevitably been felt. Nonetheless, with the support of University and National Library of Wales (NLW) staff, we have managed to adapt. It has been a very welcome opportunity for all of us in the group to gain some cataloguing experience and play a role in the wider Unlocking our Sound Heritage Project. Meeting up on Microsoft Teams every week, our team have gained experience of project planning and working together as a group to achieve a common aim. We have also had the opportunity to hone skills more specific to the role of an archivist, such as ensuring consistency and interoperability in the creation of metadata. To ensure consistency of language, we created cataloguing guidelines according to the requirements of NLW. This clearly set out what was required of each field, as well as whether any controlled vocabulary or international standards needed to be adhered to. To ensure interoperability, we made sure that all the information we recorded could be mapped across to different standards. This mitigates the risk of any information being lost if the collection is integrated into different catalogues.
The specific collection of recordings we have been helping to catalogue encompass various series of oral histories conducted with the residents of Tiger Bay, the diverse dockside community which has been redeveloped over time into the modern Cardiff Bay. I would like to focus in particular on the first series of recordings we have been cataloguing, which were recorded in 1987. This series encompasses a variety of interviews with a number of the residents of the time. They all lived very varied lives, but they are all united by their connection to Tiger Bay. The date these recordings were made means that the residents have interesting perspectives which would be of note to many researchers. Firstly, many of them lived in the shadow of both World Wars and contributed directly to the war effort. Secondly, many lived in Tiger Bay both before and after its 1960s redevelopment, and therefore provide a unique insight into how the so-called ‘slum clearances’ of the period could impact communities.
Other interesting topics raised during the interviews include: the nature of race relations in the twentieth century in a particularly multicultural part of Britain; the extent and nature of religious observance; gender roles; social values; working conditions and industry. Some interviewees spent more of their life than others in Tiger Bay. Those with a looser connection to the community still provide fascinating stories which may otherwise have been lost. This really brings home to me the value of oral histories as a medium. Although archivists have traditionally focused on documentary evidence, these recordings help to highlight the insight that oral histories can offer into unique lives which may otherwise have gone unrecorded.
All in all, the group are finding this a very interesting and worthwhile activity. We will be back in touch in due course, with other group members’ experiences with the subsequent series of recordings.
Ewan Macleod, MA Archive and Records Manager Student, Aberystwyth University
“As of 2016, it is widely accepted within the global audiovisual archival community that we have between 10 and 15 years in which to digitally preserve all carrier based audiovisual content held on magnetic media” International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives (IASA)
Sound collections are under threat of being lost forever due to physical degradation, and as the means of playing sounds disappear from production. In response to this, 10 hubs across the UK joined the British Library’s National Lottery Heritage funded project – Unlocking Our Sound Heritage.
The ambitious project aims to digitally preserve at-risk recordings, establish a network of audio preservation centres across the UK and engage more people with sound recordings. The National Library of Wales will digitise and catalogue recordings from our own collections as well as those held at various institutions in Wales.
It’s not just sound archives and museum that are facing risk of losing their sound collections but also personal private collections. Do you know how you could help safeguard your own recordings at home? Have you got a precious recording at home and would like to know more about it?
On Thursday 1st April 2021, Rhodri Shore, our Audio Preservation Engineer will be available on-line in a one to one session to discuss, offer advice and guidance on how you could look after your own personal sound collections.
We will be offering a rare chance for you to select sound items from your home, and ask anything about your own personal collection. Get advice on identifying the format, condition, how to store them at home and how to care and preserve your precious collections.
During your half hour slot, you can discuss your personal sound items and also hear about the challenges we faced while working with fragile sound recordings for the Unlocking Our Sound Heritage Project (UOSH).
Maybe you have an old cassette, audio reel, DAT, Minidiscs or Wax Cylinder that you need advice on? Whatever the format, make sure you pre-book your place for a friendly chat at events.library.wales
During October 1992 a small number of enthusiastic volunteers met to discuss the possibility of producing a Welsh-language magazine on disc for those of us who are visually impaired. After some discussion, it was realised that more hands would be needed to fulfill the dream, and representatives were invited from every village and town within the old Denbighshire and across the border in Caernarfonshire. Many came together and it was clear from the outset that their enthusiasm was unmatched and it was decided to launch Y Gadwyn on St David’s Day 1993. With the help of BBC and S4C staff a series of day schools were held to train interviewees for the Gadwyn.
Initially some thirty copies were distributed but the Gadwyn spread like wildfire.
Soon around three hundred of the little yellow wallets were wandering all over Wales, to large parts of England, and overseas to Australia, New Zealand and Patagonia. It was clear from the listeners’ response that the service was highly valued. Nowadays new faces have joined the crew and enthusiasm is as infectious as ever.
The CD has something for everyone, including talks about nature and the environment, interesting interviews and also various music.
We also send a copy of the CD monthly to the Bangor Society for the Blind, and to the National Library in Aberystwyth. It is very encouraging to learn that the recordings are being digitised by the Library for their protection, and that they are available for the public to listen to them. We as a Committee greatly appreciate this.
(Berwyn Morris, Y Gadwyn Secretary)
Gruff Ellis was a regular contributor to the Gadwyn. Gruff was born and raised in the Ysbyty Ifan area, and his roots were very deep in his area.
He knew every part of his habitat and knew every species that lived in it. In February 2012 he described the scene he was facing:
A translation of the audio file can be found at the end of the blog.
He had a vast knowledge of all the natural history of the area whether it be flowers and vegetables, trees, animal or birds.
A translation of the audio file can be found at the end of the blog.
He took a great interest in all the local names around the area, names that would have been lost had he not put them down on paper to record them. He published two books “Yma Mae Nghalon” (Here is my heart) 1997 and 2008’s “Cynefin Gruff”, where we see his great love for his area and the nature.
He contributed monthly to the Gadwyn magazine for years with the listeners enjoying listening to the story of his journeys out into the nature world with his old dog, who was his loyal friend. He would see something shocking and break into a song or recite a piece of poetry that he remembered. Listeners would say that listening to Gruff tell his stories is as good as getting out into the middle of nature.
He would love to go to the National Eisteddfod. He competed on the hymn for years. He was a member of Côr Meibion Llangwm and the Brythoniaid, was an elder in the Seion chapel in Ysbyty Ifan and went out to various societies to lecture about nature and everyone adored his homely way. He also contributed monthly to the local community newspaper “Yr Odyn” and was a regular contributor to Radio Cymru’s ‘Galwad Cynnar’ (Early call) program.
(Eirian Roberts, Y Gadwyn Chair)
Thanks to funding from the National Lottery Heritage Fund, the Unlocking Our Sound Heritage Project has been able to digitise the Gadwyn’s sound collection to preserve it for future generations. To hear more stories from Gruff and others you can listen to digital files from the Gadwyn in the reading room by appointment.
Translation: Gruff Ellis
I look down at the old parish and the village of Ysbyty Ifan and it’s a nice but a cold afternoon. I see smoke coming from various chimneys. People have been making fire in the afternoon like this, it’s nicer out here than in the house, I’m sure. And then I look up in the direction of Blaenau and Serw Valley on the left, then over the cefnan there is Cwm Eidda and I look forward to exploring many of them again next year, this year again. And I’m looking at Snowdon and Carneddau and the Benglog and I see just the summit of Snowdon, completely on the left, just to the left. I clearly see the Benglog, top of Tryfan. I see Carnedd Llywelyn and Carnedd Dafydd, Pen Llithrig y Wrach and Creigiau Gleision. Oh, here’s a scene for you. Wonderful.
Translation: Gruff Ellis
These old crows will soon start carrying to their nests. Especially the raven, during February. And the old kite will start carrying towards the end of the month. They will nest, I am sure, towards the end of March to April but the old raven is nesting early. The old raven is a very spectacular bird, although I don’t like them. They are old primitive birds in the crows’ family. But, there is something about them, they pair for their lives.
While digitising sound recordings the Unlocking Our Sound Heritage team have unearthed some lost and forgotten interviews from people talking about their childhood memories back in the late 1800s and early 1900s, their school days, family life, communities, and local dialect. By saving these recordings we allow future generations to hear our past and learn about our history.
Wales is a country with a variety of customs and traditions which are an important part of our culture and history. One of these is the New Year’s tradition.
Stories about local customs from the 19th Century are being told, for instance the ‘Mari Lwyd’. A medieval folk custom, with the purpose of collecting money for the poor and homeless to make up for the lack of support from the government. A tall person was nominated to lead, holding the horse’s skull made from wood, with two others behind holding the offerings collected.
Listen to Myra Evans describing the Mari Lwyd in New Quay:
A transcription of this audio file can be found at the end of the blog.
Myra Evans recalls seeing the Mari Lwyd in New Quay in January 1887, this is one of the last sighting of the Mari Lwyd in the area.
Myra stated that the Mari Lwyd party met outside the town to start the procession into New Quay. Leading were the three men with the mare, followed by men, followed by boys over 12 years old. Each wearing a face mask so no one would recognise them.
Myra remembers that her father was away at sea in 1887, leaving just her and her mother in the house. She was told that if she wanted to see the procession that passed their home she had to be quiet and make sure no one saw her. Her mother then locked the doors to stop the men from entering the house.
The party entered every pub, large shops and rich families to ask for money for the poor. If they refused or did not give much, the party would force their way into the building and take anything they liked.
Myra saw the party pass her house from behind the curtains making sure to be quiet, and unseen. If they saw her the mother said that they would try and break into the house.
Calennig is another Welsh tradition, where children go from door to door on New Year’s Day, until noon, singing good wishes for the year ahead and given calennig in return. These would be either food or money.
One song sung in mid Wales was:
Blwyddyn Newydd Dda i chi
Ac i bawb sydd yn y tŷ
Dyma fy nymuniad i
Blwyddyn Newydd Dda i chi
A happy new year to you
And to everyone in the house
This is my wish
A happy new year to you
Margaret Davies parents did not allow her to go out to collect Calennig, but recalls children calling at her house and receiving a penny or a piece of bread.
While D.J. Morgan from Abermeurig, Talsarn remembers going out for the first time with his mother and four sisters. They woke at 5am to go around Abermeurig then around the neighboring farms. He remembers that the best farm he visited was Mrs. Griffiths, where they received a piece of cake for singing, and was allowed to take another piece home with them.
Jack Poole recalls getting up at dawn and going straight to the furthest house in the village working his way back, no matter what the weather was like. Everyone enjoyed and sung verses at every door.
Jack remembers seeing a widower and her five children going around asking for Calennig with bags on their backs. They collected food such as bread or cheese. Every child carried a load on their back.
Listen to Jack reciting the verse he used to recite:
A transcription of this audio file can be found at the end of the blog.
The audio recordings are part of the Ceredigion Library Oral history collection, and can be listened to here at the Library through appointment.
Transcription: Myra Evans [Translation]
Well, a tall man was chosen to carry the horse’s head on his shoulders to lead the parade and two other men, one on each side, helped him walk in the middle of the road. One of them was taking care of the large leather purse he had to keep the money they had, another was a good rhymester seeking gifts of money and wine and cakes from the shopkeeper or the rich. The horse head had white linen over it, the eyes and ears decorated in leather and loose colorful ribbons hanging over the neck
Transcription: Mr. Jack Poole [Translation]
We had sing or make some noise at every door, for example
Today is New Year’s Day, I come across you
To ask for the penny or a piece of bread and cheese
Oh don’t change countenance
Don’t change anything from your look
Before next New Year’s Day comes
Many will be in their grave
And then if you were in a hurry to go, you would say
Whole Calennig on New Years day morning, once, twice, three times
And then Happy New Year
During the early 70s Canada’s Government commissioned people to collect information about various nationalities who lived in the country. For three months during 1974, Glenys James researched into the history of the Welsh who migrated to Canada from Patagonia. During this time, she travelled over 8,000 miles speaking and recording interviews with various families of Welsh descents.
The recordings are of historical value and gives us a perspective of life in Patagonia and Canada in the early twentieth century. By listening to the voices of the people themselves we can hear what they saw, and how they felt.
During this time there was a lot of movement within Canada from various nations, including people from Patagonia with roots in Wales.
In 1902, over 200 of the Welsh left Patagonia for their new life in Canada with over 5,000 migrating after the Revival of 1904-5. Many moved due to the difficult living conditions they encountered mainly constant flooding, and no land available to farm.
New communities were formed with many of the Welsh settling in the Saskatchewan area, since this was a designated area chosen by the British Government under David Lloyd George. The new villages and towns were given Welsh place names, such as Bangor, Llewelyn and Glyndwr. Shops, buildings, schools and chapels were built and some of the Welsh traditions were kept, like the Eisteddfod.
Mr Griffith Jones recalls an ‘Englyn’ that his father wrote in an Eisteddfod:
A transcription of this audio file can be found at the end of the blog.
The oral history collection was then put together by the Canadian History Museum, Ottawa where the original tapes are kept. Copies were sent to the National Library of Wales where they were stored in a controlled environment in order to protect the tapes for future use.
The Unlocking Our Sound Heritage project which is funded by the National Lottery Heritage Fund, and led by the British Library have now digitised and created metadata for these interviews. The collection can now be heard for the first time since the 70s.
Here’s Jonathan Wise from the Canadian History Museum discussing the Glenys James collection:
A transcription of this audio file can be found at the end of the blog.
For more information about the Glenys James collection and how they were digitised, have a look at our video ‘From Canada to the National Library of Wales’ on our YouTube page: https://www.youtube.com/user/llyfrgen
Transcription: Mr Griffith Jones
Griffith Jones: Dad came from Wales, Tregeiriog first in 1891 and after several trips back came out again in 1910 and settled in the Wood River district. Mother is of Welsh parents and she came from the United States to Canada in 1902 and they were married in 1911. There were four of us born to them and probably I speak as good a Welsh as any of them which isn’t very good.
Glenys James: Now your father was well known in the area here for his Welsh writing of Englynion (verse) both in Welsh and in English.
Griffith Jones: He was well known all over North America in fact, because he contributed to the Welsh papers and he competed in all the Welsh Eisteddfod that he could with his Englynion and he won many prizes with them.
Glenys James: Can you recall any of these englynion that he wrote?
Griffith Jones: I could say one in English, as you know the englyn must have consonance that harmonies and one that he won a prize on in English was:
Lindy how well he landed
In Paris o peril confronted
Pretty Yank with great head
Away he went un daunted
Transcription: Mr Johnathan Wise
Hi my name is Jonathan Wise. I’m a collection specialist for the audiovisual archives at the Canadian Museum of History. Along with world class exhibitions and research programs, the Museum houses an archive of over 100,000 historical recordings. These unique collections date from 1899 and contain a variety of recorded songs, stories and interviews from communities in every province and territory of Canada.
One of these collections is that of Glenys James. In 1974, Glenys James set off across the country to research the lives of Welsh immigrants who had come to Canada during the last century. She interviewed people in their homes talking about their own unique lives and experiences. She asked about family histories and childhood memories. She was especially interested in how Welsh language and culture were being preserved.
From Montreal Quebec to Edington, Alberta and points in between Glenys James captured the moment in the life of Canada Welsh communities.
The staff of libraries, archives and museums across the globe work hard to protect oral history collections like those of Glenys James. Many of these recordings are on fragile and obsolete media that must be digitised for prosperity.
Ultimately, all this work is to preserve the past, to serve the present and future generations. The Canadian Museum of History is pleased to have an opportunity to share the work of Glenys James and I would like to thank everyone at the National Library of Wales for their support in helping preserve this important collection.
During the lockdown 25 composers have been busy composing new pieces for the Unlocking Our Sound Heritage project. The composers received various interviews from 5 different collections from the sound archive and were asked to listen and use them as inspiration to create a new piece of work.
Glenys James was born in London to Welsh parents and spoke Welsh at home and the chapel, but never lived in Wales.
She moved to Canada where she researched the Welsh who migrated to Canada and Patagonia for the Canadian Museum of Man, Ottawa (now known as Canadian Centre for Cultural Studies Ottawa)
In 1974, Glenys James recorded various interviews with people of Welsh descent living in Canada, especially the Satchawen area where Welsh communities were formed. Over 200 people left Patagonia for Canada in 1902 because of difficult conditions and wanting to create a better life for themselves. These interviews include personal stories and accounts of building new villages and naming them in Welsh (Glyndwr, Bangor, Llewelyn). They erected new schools and chapels and held Eisteddfodau.
The original reel to reel tapes are now kept at the Canadian Centre for Cultural Studies in Ottawa with cassette copies and digital files here at the National Library.
Why should we not sing?
In 1916 The Times published a letter where the writer objected to the holding of the Eisteddfod during war time. In response to the article, David Lloyd George delivered a speech at Aberystwyth National Eisteddfod, which began with the words – ‘Why should we not sing during war time?’
Throughout the speech he defends holding the Eisteddfod. It was reported that over 7,000 people listened and cheered his speech. On the 15th February, 1934, Lloyd George recorded part of his famous speech at the BBC studios to be aired on radio. A copy of this address is kept at the Library and has been digitally restored by the Unlocking Our Sound Heritage team.
Story of the Forest
Story of the Forest was a project run by the Forestry Commission in 2002-3 where they recorded interviews with people involved in Forestry Commission activities in Wales.
Personal stories were told by people who lived and worked in and around the forestry, discussing the situation from post war up to the 21st century, including accounts of how they came to work for the Forestry Commission, the activities – building roads, ploughing. The interviews give us an insight to the changes to Wales’ landscape, and teach us about the social, agricultural and economic effects.
167 Minidiscs were deposited to the Library; they were digitised and catalogued by students of the MA Archive Administration and MSc Digital Curation courses from Aberystwyth University’s Department of Information Studies in 2019.
Meleri Mair interviews Caradog Jones in 1997 on the subject of poaching, with comments on his own experience as a river bailiff in the 1950s.
Mr Jones describes why people poached – mainly poverty, the consequences to those who were caught and the custom of disguising their identity to avoid detection at night.
Colin Edwards Collection
Colin Edwards was a Welsh journalist, broadcaster and author who lived in California. During the 1960s he recorded interviews with friends, family and acquaintances of Dylan Thomas. These accounts and reminiscences on the life of Dylan give us an insight to his character, his work, relationships, and family background.
The tapes were donated to the Library by Colin’s wife, Mary Edwards, following his death. David N Thomas used the tapes in his published books ‘Dylan Remembered’, 2 vols (Seren and NLW, 2003, 2004)
We would like to thank all the composers who took part in the commission work; we hope you enjoy listening to the compositions:
Alan Chamberlain; Angharad Davies; Ben McManus; Bonello, Ruth and Hay; Branwen Williams; David Roche; Derri Joseph Lewis; Gareth Bonello; Georgia Ruth Williams; Geraint Rhys; Gwen Mairi; Gwenan Gibbard; Gwilym Bowen Rhys; Gwydion Rhys; Luciano Williamson; Owen Shiers Pierce Joyce; Pwdin Reis composed by Neil Rosser; Sally Crosby; Sam Humphreys; Seth Alexander; Stacey Blythe; Steff Rees; Tinc y Tannau; Toby Hay.
I’m a Swedish archivist that has done an internship at the National Library of Wales (NLW) between January-July 2020. The internship was funded by the EU programme Erasmus+, and Gothenburg University was the supporting institution in Sweden. The purpose was to gain hands on experience of working as a sound archivist and at the same time help out a cultural heritage institution. I was therefore stationed at the Screen & Sound Archive and worked with the digitisation project Unlocking Our Sound Heritage (UOSH).
The aim of the UOSH project is to preserve, digitise and make rare and unique sound recordings available to the public all over the UK. NLW is one of ten national and regional archival institutions involved and it is all being coordinated by the British Library. The consortium will also deliver various programmes of public engagement activities, and a website where a large part of the recordings will be freely available to everyone for research.
So I have digitised, catalogued, researched content and rights to recordings, as well as participated in training activities for volunteers in the Tiger Bay area of Cardiff. The NLW has sound collections and recordings related to various aspects of life in Wales, dating back from the birth of recorded sound in the 1880s to present time. So working with the material has given me a first glimpse into parts of Welsh history and culture. I have also created content to be used in the NLW’s social media channels and written/edited articles for Wikipedia, in order to spread information about the UOSH project and the recordings (and about a previous digitisation project called Unlocking Film Heritage) to a wider public.
While working with Wikipedia I was reminded of its strengths and weaknesses in relations to archive. One of Wikipedia’s strengths is its availability and wide spread use around the globe, but on the other hand there are problems of representation in the articles.
In Sweden, I have previously taken part in a Wikipedia workshop aimed at women with no or little experience of editing and writing articles. It was arranged by Stockholm Museum of Women’s History in order to reduce the gender gap at Wikipedia. Around 90% of the articles are written by men and subsequently about four times as many articles are about men. We were therefore encouraged to edit and write articles about women.
I wrote an article about Stockholms Bulgariska Damkör (Stockholm Bulgarian Women’s Choir), a choir that had been active for over 20 years. But it was hard to get the article approved by Wikipedia because of the notability criteria. The subject of an article needs to be considered to have of a high degree of interest, significance or fame. The choir had been performing at festivals, in churches, embassies, museums, engaged in cultural exchanges, arranged work shops etc. But they had never released an album, hence it was argued that the choir wasn’t noteworthy. There were also few articles about them in music magazines or similar. I managed to find radio recordings of live performances and argued for their importance and uniqueness, so eventually the article was approved.
This got me thinking about representation and how Wikipedia run the risk of reproducing the same old hierarchy that has been prevalent during history. Women as a group have traditionally had less opportunities and consequently received fewer mentions in historic documentation, press etc. One way to counteract this has been for women to pursue different avenues to men. As a result, a modern day women’s choir might invest in live performance and getting to be known about via word-of-mouth, instead of doing recordings and trying to get media attention. Other suppressed groups like financially vulnerable people or different minorities (ethnic, cultural etc.) run the same risk of getting continuously less representation in the digital era.
Of course archives also battle with problems of representation. But one way to counteract this has been to consciously fill the archival gaps by conducting oral history interviews. Oral history can be understood as a method of gathering information about historical periods and events by interviewing people who experienced them. Interviews can also be done with persons whose experiences and memories are representative of certain communities or whose lives have been of special significance. The aim is often to obtain information from different perspectives, especially those that cannot be found in written sources. Oral history has developed hand-in-hand with sound and audio-visual recording techniques but interviews can also be transcribed. Song and music collecting is a similar way of gathering orally transmitted music (like folk music) and thus filling the musical gap.
I have come across a wide range of oral history recordings while working on the UOSH project. For example interviews with Welsh farmers that lived through World War II, descendents of Welsh emigrants in the USA, Welsh musician Andy Fairweather Low, film producer Eric Rowan who made the film about the artist siblings “Augustus and Gwen: The Fire and the Fountain (1975)”, Elinor Rosen who had a lifelong engagement with the Labour Party, photographer John Goddard and many interviews with Welsh painters and artists that were mainly active during the 1900 hundreds, like Eirian and Denys Short.
Some oral history interviews are done with relatives and friends of more famous people, that no longer are with us, like the interview with Tom Evans that explores the collecting activities of his wife Margaret Evans (1922-1996). She amassed costumes, artefacts, documents and ephemera associated with Aberystwyth and beyond, from 1800s to the 1900s. The documents from her collection went to Ceredigion Archives and the artefacts to Ceredigion Museum. Another example is the interview with Stanley Cheetham, related to the pioneer Arthur Cheetham (1864-1937), who was the first film-maker based in Wales. He made over 30 short films between 1898 and1912 and showed them in rural communities as well as opening the first all-year-round cinema in Rhyl in 1906. The Screen & Sound Archive also holds films made by Arthur’s son G.A. Cheetham.
Yet other oral history interviews are centred around a cultural phenomenon like professor Moira Vincentelli`s string of interviews exploring the use and role of the Welsh dresser across generations.
Finally, I would like to mention the Tiger Bay Collection. It belongs to The Heritage & Cultural Exchange Tiger Bay and the World, a community based organisation that strives to chronicle the heritage and cultural diversity of Tiger Bay and Cardiff Docklands. They have archival materials including: photographs, rations books, magazines, seamen’s discharge books, paintings and sketches, a school register as well as audio and videotaped interviews. The sound recordings are being digitised and catalogued during the UOSH project and would seem to be a treasure for people wanting to learn more about one of the original multicultural areas, with migrants from up to 45 nationalities.
And all these examples are recordings in English, there are a lot more for Welsh speakers. Hopefully there will be something relevant for everyone. All the digitised and catalogued recordings from the USOH project are being ingested into the British Library’s Sound & Moving Image Catalogue and eventually a newly developed, purpose-built media player and website will be launched. There up to 100,000 recordings will be freely available to everyone for research, enjoyment and inspiration. The national and regional institutions will provide access locally to their own recordings and those that do not have licences and permissions to be published online.
Wikipedia do not accept oral history as a legitimate source for an article so it is worth searching the archives to find something original and different. And with the UOSH project archives are closing in on Wikipedia’s lead, when it comes to access and availability online.
Lastly, I would like to thank the staff at NLW, especially at the Screen & Sound Archive, who have been very welcoming and supportive during my time in Wales.
The National Library of Wales is one of 10 hubs across Britain that is collaborating with the British Library on the Unlocking Our Sound Heritage project. The project, funded by the National Lottery Heritage Fund, aims to protect the nation’s rare and unique sound recordings.
We are in the process of digitising, cataloguing and assessing the rights of 5,000 sound recordings from across Wales in order to protect them for future generations.
Over the next few weeks, composers will be composing new works based on some of Wales’s oral history collections. 25 artists have been commissioned to undertake this task. They will listen to a number of interviews recorded either in Wales or by people from Wales, and will use them to inspire creating a new piece of work.
During the summer the Library will unlock these works, showing how an audio archive can be used to create creative works.
The composers selected are listed below:
Ailsa Hughes a Sianed Jones: ‘Tinc y Tannau’ duo who work with historical Welsh music and poetry
Alan Chamberlain: composer who predominantly works with archival content
Angharad Davies: violinist, composer and performer and a member of several duets
Ben McManus: musician and composer with an interest in folk music and folklore
Bonello, Ruth and Hay: musical trio, featuring prominent Welsh songwriters who started performing together in 2019
Branwen Williams: musician, composer and member of several groups from Wales
David Roche: composer from Tredegar who has received over 30 academic and professional awards
Derri Joseph Lewis: musician and composer with experience of writing acoustic and electronic music
Gareth Bonello: musician and composer who uses Welsh folk songs and poetry in his work
Georgia Ruth Williams: musician and composer who is inspired by the history of Wales and folk tradition
Geraint Rhys: independent musician and award winning film-maker from Swansea
Gwen Mairi: professional harpist who sings Welsh folk songs
Gwenan Gibbard: singer and harpist specialising in folk music
Gwilym Bowen Rhys: Welsh folk singer who has developed a deep connection with the traditional songs of Wales
Gwydion Rhys: 6th form pupil at Ysgol Dyffryn Ogwen, Bethesda who composes and plays the piano
Luciano Williamson: composer about to graduate from the Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama
Neil Rosser: hails from Morriston with over 30 years’ experience as a composer and performer
Owen Shiers: musician and composer who performs Welsh folk music
Pierce Joyce: composition student at the Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama, hailing from Ireland
Sally Crosby: singer – song writer with a degree in Music and Creative writing
Sam Humphreys: musician who plays the guitar and is a member of the band Calan
Seth Alexander: composer who likes to combine computer instrumentation with sound recordings
Stacey Blythe: composer, musician and performer who also performs as part of various duos
Steff Rees: musician and composer who is a member of the band Bwca, and part of the ukulele Iwcadwli orchestra
Toby Hay: composer and performer with his work being inspired by history, landscape and stories
A blog about the work and collections of the National Library of Wales.
Due to the more personal nature of blogs it is the Library's policy to publish postings in the original language only. An equal number of blog posts are published in both Welsh and English, but they are not the same postings. For a translation of the blog readers may wish to try facilities such as Google Translate.